In this paper, we analyze the audio signal distortions introduced by pitch-scaling, random cropping and DA/AD conversion, and find a robust feature, average Fourier magnitude over the log-polar frequency index(
), which can resist these attacks. Theoretical analysis and extensive experiments demonstrate that
is an appropriate embedding region for robust audio watermarking. This is the first work on applying log-polar mapping to audio watermark. The usage of log-polar mapping in our work is basically different from the existing works in image watermarking. The log-polar mapping is only applied to the frequency index, not to the transform coefficients, which avoids the reconstruction distortion of inverse log-polar transform and reduces the computation cost. Comparison with the existing methods, the proposed
-based watermarking scheme has the outstanding performance on resisting pitch-scaling and random cropping, as well as very approving robustness to DA/AD conversion and TSM (Time-Scale Modification). The watermarked audio achieves high auditory quality. Experimental results show that the scheme is very robust to common audio signal processing and distortions introduced in Stirmark for Audio.