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This book investigates whether so-called rogue states – assumed antagonists of a Western-liberal world order – could also act as norm entrepreneurs by championing the genesis and evolution of global norms. The author explores this issue by analyzing the arms control policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. A comparison with the prototypical norm entrepreneur Sweden and the Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea – a notorious norm-breaker – reveals interesting insights for norm research: Apparently, norm entrepreneurship manifests itself in different degrees and phases of the norm life cycle. The finding that Iran indeed acts as a norm entrepreneur in some cases also sheds light on those factors that might account for the success or failure of norm advocacy. Lastly, the book offers a new perspective on “rogue states”, by not only regarding them as irrational antagonists of the current world order, but also as legitimate participants in a discourse on what the ruling order should look like. This book will appeal to scholars interested in critical norm research in international relations.

“This book offers cutting-edge norm research, highlighting how norm-breakers can function as norm-makers."
Maria Rost Rublee, Associate Professor of International Relations, Monash University (Australia)

“So-called ‘rogue states’ are typically understood as norm breakers, but Carmen Wunderlich makes a persuasive conceptual case backed by empirical research that we need to consider the extent to which they are in fact norm entrepreneurs in their own right. In an era characterized by much concern over the status of liberal norms, this is a very timely study.”
Richard Price, Department of Political Science, The University of British Columbia (Canada)

"At a time when the world order is under pressure, this cutting-edge analysis of how dissatisfied states challenge existing global norms illuminates a topic crucial to understanding contemporary international relations."
Nina Tannenwald, Director, Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown University (Rhode Island USA)

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction: Norm Breakers as Norm Makers?

Abstract
This book departs from the observation that mainstream research on norms is analytically biased: analyses of “successful” norm diffusion usually focus on the institutionalization of liberal norms and trace these processes back to norm entrepreneurship of liberal Western actors. Taking a critical constructivist stance instead, in this book, Wunderlich pursues a question that is as innovative as it is counterintuitive: She proposes to look at the supposed opponents of the Western liberal world order—so-called “rogue states”—to see whether they are possibly not aiming at the overthrow, but at the further development of the normative order thus acting as norm entrepreneurs. This chapter presents the basic argument, defines central terms and concepts, and introduces the research design that guides the empirical analysis at the heart of the book.
Carmen Wunderlich

2. Dedicated to the Good: Norm Entrepreneurs in International Relations

Abstract
This chapter presents the state of the art on research on norm dynamics in IR with a focus on the role of norm entrepreneurs for the construction, maintenance, strengthening, and change of global norms. Wunderlich provides a comprehensive account of how the concept of norm entrepreneurship has been applied in liberal strands of the norm literature covering the type of actors usually summarized under the label, their characteristics, strategies, motives, and objectives. In doing so, she brings to the fore a normative bias that has led liberal-constructivist norm scholars to focus on prototypical Western liberal actors and their efforts to advocate seemingly universal norms. The extent to which actors other than transnational activist networks or good international citizens are committed to the construction and diffusion of (Western liberal) norms has been largely ignored. The chapter thus lays the foundation for the book’s goal of overcoming this one-sided focus taking recourse to more recent efforts in the realm of critical norm studies.
Carmen Wunderlich

3. Against the Norms of International Society: Rogues, Outlaws, and Pariahs

Abstract
The concept of the “rogue state” has been introduced into the political and scholarly debate to label—and delegitimize—norm-breaking behavior. The chapter traces the concept’s construction and evolution in the context of US foreign policy with a focus on how it has been linked to (alleged) norm transgressions and it discusses the selective and arbitrary usage of the concept, particularly with regard to policy making. Wunderlich draws attention to the fact that both in the political and scholarly discourse, “rogue states” are typically characterized as outsiders to the international community, who are neither willing nor able to comply with the rules of the prevailing normative order and thus deprived normative agency. As a top-down construction, the concept primarily serves to stabilize a narrative contrasting a Global North following reputable “liberal” norms with a Global South which is increasingly characterized by “rogues” or failed states and the promotion of “illiberal” norms. As a consequence, adhering to the stigmatizing label does not seem to be sustainable.
Carmen Wunderlich

4. The Ugly? Rogue States as Norm Entrepreneurs

Abstract
This chapter takes a counter-intuitive approach by arguing that “rogue states”—perceived norm breakers—can also function as norm makers. Wunderlich links her argument to recent critical norm studies that have begun to inquire norm-promoting efforts by unconventional types of actors, such as non-Western and “illiberal” norm advocates or norm antipreneurs. She also ties into research on norm contestation and resistance toward international norms in order to come up with alternative explanations for the relationship of alleged “rogue states” and norms.
Carmen Wunderlich

5. Researching and Operationalizing Prototypical and Unconventional Norm Entrepreneurship

Abstract
The chapter presents the research design guiding the empirical analysis that lies at the heart of “Rogue states as norm entrepreneurs.” Addressing analytical limitations of liberal norm studies and building on a thorough literature review, Wunderlich offers a useful set of criteria to identify and assess norm entrepreneurship. Recourse to this analytical framework will not only help scholars to properly apply the concept in future research but also allow for analytically and sound comparisons of different types of norm advocates. The chapter also discusses theory-based alternative explanations for the behavior of “rogue states” and norms that either depict them as norm breakers or as advocates of subsidiary norms. Furthermore, Wunderlich provides detailed coding schemes and process-tracing procedures for conducting empirical analyses.
Carmen Wunderlich

6. Iran and the International Community: A Counter-Hegemonic Norm Breaker?

Abstract
The Islamic Republic of Iran has a long history of being perceived as a counter-hegemonic norm breaker. In this chapter, Wunderlich explores the world order conceptions underlying Iran’s behavior in and toward the international system. Departing from the country’s historical and geographical context as well as its institutional setting, Wunderlich draws attention to the ideological foundations of Iran’s foreign and security policy. The chapter concludes that Iran’s behavior toward the normative order is ambivalent: Notwithstanding norm transgressions and discursive as well as practical contestation in some policy fields, the display of an antagonistic attitude and the propagation of a normative alternative aim toward a reform of the Western liberal-shaped normative order rather than its complete overthrow.
Carmen Wunderlich

7. Iran as a Norm Entrepreneur

Abstract
This chapter comprises the empirical core of “Rogue States as Norm Entrepreneurs,” zooming in on the arms control policies of Iran. While most scholars dismiss Iranian arms control policy as political maneuvering and propaganda instrument, Wunderlich shows that it is also norm-driven and fits the theoretical concept of norm entrepreneurship. Based on a detailed process-tracing, Wunderlich reconstructs three different instances of Iranian norm advocacy with regard to the control of weapons of mass destruction: Iran’s commitment to nuclear disarmament, its advocacy for a right to uranium enrichment as well as Iranian engagement for assistance and protection for the victims of chemical weapons. Based on a set of criteria distilled from the literature on norms, Wunderlich explores the strategies and means through which Iranian norm entrepreneurship unfolds and discusses the extent to which it differs from prototypical norm advocacy.
Carmen Wunderlich

8. Comparing Prototypical and Unorthodox Norm Advocacy

Abstract
Departing from the finding that Iran—an alleged “rogue state”—acts as a norm entrepreneur in selected policy fields, this chapter seeks to compare such unorthodox norm advocacy with cases of ideal-type norm entrepreneurship as identified by liberal norm scholars. Therefore, Wunderlich contrasts the peculiarities of Iranian norm entrepreneurship with two contrasting cases: A comparison with the prototypical good international citizen, Sweden, serves to reveal differences with regard to the strategies and means used to promote norms. The comparison with North Korea, another state typically alleged of violating global norms, is intended to allay the suspicion that the concept of norm entrepreneurship can be applied to all kinds of actors. In addition, it helps answer the question under what circumstances resistance to the ruling order might transform into activism or isolationism.
Carmen Wunderlich

9. Conclusion: Revisiting Norm Entrepreneurship

Abstract
The finding that “rogue states” can be norm entrepreneurs has consequences for theorizing about norms as well as practical implications for dealing with supposed normative deviants. With regard to the further development of norms research, Wunderlich suggests to analytically distinguish between different forms of norm entrepreneurship, depending on the scope of proactivism. She also suggests to differentiate between reformist and revolutionary norm entrepreneurs, depending on how the respective actor and its normative objectives relate to the prevailing normative order (maintenance, overthrow, or subversion). Regarding the policy toward alleged “rogue states,” Wunderlich warns against sticking to the stigmatizing label. Instead, it might be fruitful to recognize norm-promoting activities by these states and seek out possibilities for common normative ground. The chapter concludes by outlining avenues for further research.
Carmen Wunderlich
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