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This last century of the second millennium has compressed human history to such an extent that whole ages of engineering, economics, social politics and the humanities have been accommodated in decades or even years. Mankind has matured and applied its cognitive and creative genes to advance science and to internationalise future goals, including the vital goal of sustainable social development. However, having no control over the new pace of history, twentieth-century civilisation has faced global cataclysms of a frequency and depth unprecedented and inconceivable in the past millennia. Among the recent "crises" to be "resolved" in the third millennium is disintegration of the Soviet Union, the biggest state and third largest population in the world. Regretfully, the pace of change in the Soviet Union had been slower than the rates of reform elsewhere. Attempts at economic redecorating instead of radical market-oriented reforms failed. In Soviet society, general discontent with the progress of perestroika in the 1980s provoked the "child complacency" syndrome that is typical of a young mind contemptuous of any adult action: it is convinced that things could have been done much better and much quicker. With the new millennium approaching, the Soviet Union gave way to 15 new states ridden with both inherited and acquired economic, political and social maladies. It is common knowledge, however, that childhood epidemics are short-lived.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Abstract
This last century of the second millennium has compressed human history to such an extent that whole ages of engineering, economics, social politics and the humanities have been accommodated in decades or even years. Mankind has matured and applied its cognitive and creative genes to advance science and to internationalise future goals, including the vital goal of sustainable social development. However, having no control over the new pace of history, twentieth-century civilisation has faced global cataclysms of a frequency and depth unprecedented and inconceivable in the past millennia.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 1. The CIS in the World Economy

Abstract
General information. Geographically, Eurasia is the Earth’s largest continent, covering the two parts of the world, Europe and Asia, and surrounded by the Arctic, Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans and their seas. It is also the Earth’s most populated one — over 3 billion — with the world’s most populated countries China and India accounting for more than half of the population and about 285 million in the 12 independent CIS member states (see Table 1).
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 2. General Goals of Economic Reforms

Abstract
Sustainable development and the market. Economic reforms in the CIS countries are focused on providing sustainable economic development in the 21st century. While the term sustainable development seems rather vague and somewhat inferior to recent conventions such as socialism and capitalism, this multipolar definition best describes the future economic framework.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 3. Denationalisation, Privatisation and Economic Security in the CIS Countries

Abstract
Denationalisationliberal model. Denationalisation of the economy, i.e. the State waiver of the right of day-to-day administration of economic activities of enterprises (e.g. planning the range and output of products, resource supply, sales management) has been at the basis of reform in all the CIS countries without exception. In particular, this involves privatisation, i.e. transfer of ownership or assignment of trust in state property to legal entities or private individuals by sale of shares, sale of entire enterprises at auctions or in tender trade, lease (with an option to buy out) or trust (contracts of discretionary trust).
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 4. Forming Market Infrastructure

Abstract
Infrastructure and its role in modern economy. The infrastructure is a system of economic organisations and non-profit institutions providing the firms and people in a given community with the services required for normal business activities and the reproduction of productive forces.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 5. Towards a New Structure of Public Economy

Abstract
Basic strategies of structural reform. The USSR had a highly specific technological structure of production, primarily noted for energy- and material intensity (two to three times that in developed countries) and a very expensive social infrastructure. The proportions were maintained through government- subsidies low prices on raw materials, mainly metals and fuels, and transport tariffs, social subsidies to enterprises, government investments in fixed assets and environmental control. As a result, even the internationally non-competitive (due to outdated process technologies) branches, such as machine building, light industry, construction and the AIC, had been profitable prior to transition to market economy.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 6. Changes in the Agroindustrial Sector

Abstract
Agrarian sector in CIS economies. The agrarian sector figures prominently in CIS economies. It employs a much greater proportion of the public than in other European and North American countries, or Japan (especially in Central Asian and Transcaucasian republics), largely governing the social and political developments, preservation of traditional national values and the basic natural wealth — land and its fertility — as well as the national demographic potential.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 7. Macro-Economic Policies in CIS Member States

Abstract
Government budget in a transitional economy. The government budget is an account of public revenues and expenditures for a specified period, approved by legislative authority. Until the twentieth century, the government budgetary policy involved tax collection exclusively for the maintenance of the State machine, including defence, public security and foreign affairs. For the rest, classical economic science relied on automatic mechanisms of self-regulation in the market economy. However, economic crisis in the 1930s demonstrated that, though effective for small-scale commodity production, this mechanism was inadequate in modern, highly socialised industrial economies.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 8. Micro-Economic Basis of Reforms

Abstract
The firm as a principal unit of the market economy. Four basic types of economic entities to make management decisions operate under market economy, i.e. the State and local power authorities, households (families), firms, non-profit economic establishments and associations.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Chapter 9. CIS Countries on the way to Regional Economic Integration

Abstract
The region in modern economy. The term “region” has three meanings in modern publications: first, it is the way to identify an administrative-territorial unit (a district, an area (oblast), a hukimat, a vilayet, a borough, a county, other subjects of a unitarian State or a federation) whose administration is responsible for the living conditions of its residents (e.g. energy and water supply, telecommunications, medicare, housing and utilities). A second definition refers to an economic-geographic region, such as Siberia, Far East or northern Caucasus in Russia, or Pridnestrovie or Galicia in the Ukraine, representing an aggregation of administrative entities united by common environmental climatic conditions, industrial specialisation and transportation infrastructure. Lastly, a region in the global economy signifies several neighbouring states sharing common economic traditions and inter-related economy sharing the single reproduction cycle on their territories, including mining and use of raw materials and energy resources, research, as well as developments and production of research-intensive products. Such hyper-regions are: North America, Asia and Pacific Region (APR), Southeast Asia (SEA), western and central Europe, Northeastern and Central Eurasia (CIS territory), and Africa.
Egor S. Stroev, Leonid S. Bliakhman, Mikhail I. Krotov

Backmatter

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