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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Subject-Oriented Business Process Management, S-BPM ONE 2011, held in Ingolstadt, Germany, in September 2011. The papers feature the analysis, modeling, implementation, execution and management of interaction patterns with an explicit stakeholder focus and also embrace themes pertaining to the engineering and management of systems and organizations, particularly with respect to the areas of interaction culture, process-aware information systems, strategic alignment, and governance structures.



Educational Perspectives


Evidence-Based (S-)BPM Education

Establishing new paradigms, such as S-BPM, requires education. In this paper, an educational proposal is developed, not only to help members of existing BPM communities shifting, but also capturing the dynamics of the field itself. The approach is grounded on the concepts of evidence-based practice and learning, stemming from medicine, and epistemological considerations. In the paper the major constituents of evidence-based S-BPM education are discussed and exemplified: provision of knowledge and content generation, exploration and consolidation, sharing and distribution. They can be intertwined and designed in a variety of ways. Of particular interest are stakeholder-specific perspectives and behavior patterns, as the change over time, and require sophisticated features and a corresponding scheme of representing BPM content, information about user-specific content individualization, and social interaction.
Christian Stary

Subject-Oriented Elicitation of Distributed Business Process Knowledge

Subject-oriented business process modeling enables people to represent their knowledge about their individual ways of performing parts of a cooperative work process and to collaboratively specify the interfaces with their co-workers. How this knowledge can be captured and represented by stakeholders themselves has hardly been addressed. This paper presents an individual-centered approach to cooperative elicitation of work process knowledge in co-located and distributed business settings. An interactive tabletop interface is used for modeling and interaction support. Interactions among subjects are derived from how people cooperate using the interface. For cross-organizational use, several tabletop interfaces can be linked and used for synchronous, distributed modeling. The conceptual foundations of both, the elicitation platform and the communication and synchronization mechanism are presented and their technical feasibility is shown.
Stefan Oppl

BPM@KMU – Designing e-Learning for the Introduction of BPM in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Business Process Management (BPM) becomes more and more relevant also for small- and medium-sized companies (SME’s). Today’s strategies and approaches for the implementation of BPM rely on methods and tools mainly developed by and focused on large enterprises but less on the needs of small- and mid-sized organisations. With the BPM@KMU project the Institute of Information Systems of a Bavarian university conducts together with the Virtual University of Bavaria (VHB) and a set of SMEs a project which aims on an efficient implementation of BPM in such organisations. Considering e-Learning as an enabler or tool which matches existing barriers for the implementation of Business Process Management, this paper offers a case study report on the observations when designing and implementing the BPM@KMU e-Learning program guided by the Cybernetic e-Learning Management Model. The paper considers first project results and shows, that e-Learning can address the heterogeneous maturity and previous knowledge about BPM by an adequate set of instructional as well as technological strategies and concepts.
Johannes Kröckel, Bernd Hilgarth

Process Training to Support Change Necessary within the Scope of Process Implementation

Introducing new or modified business processes is a change task that so far has played only a minor role within the discussion of business process management. Process training – if properly designed – can contribute significantly to ensure that all parties involved can quickly and easily acquire the required process competence (knowledge, skills, will and permission). They are therefore effective tools of change management. In this paper we will draft the requirements of process training and will highlight the proposed approach using an actual case study. In addition to technical and organizational aspects we consider process competence (the “human factor”) as a third important criterion in successful Business Process Management (BPM).
Gregor Back, Klaus Daniel

Methodological Advancements


Situatedness - The Amalgam of Agile (S-)BPM

Process development has become vital for enterprises operating in an increasingly dynamic business environment. As business process models represent boundary objects between technology and business operations they need not only be able to capture all essential information required for executing business processes, but also for the situational context of agile Business Process Management (BPM). Of particular interest are aspects such as: What is triggering changes? What are the targets of an organizational move? Which impact could it have on the business operation? Although several categories of BPM approaches have been established, the situational context of organizational change has only been tackled rudimentary on the level of representational requirements. In this contribution we discuss existing concepts to represent situations and their capability to support the modification of business operations on-the-fly. Furthermore, we exemplify an integrated representation approach enabling situated subject-oriented BPM.
Matthias Neubauer, Christian Stary

Adaptive Case Management: Supporting Knowledge Intensive Processes with IT Systems

As the transition to the knowledge society is steadily proceeding in industrialized countries, increasing knowledge workers’ productivity in businesses becomes crucial. However, current business process management approaches and systems are unable to satisfy the high requirements of flexibility in knowledge intensive processes. Adaptive Case Management (ACM) is an emerging yet still immature approach in the business process management field that promises to bridge this gap. This contribution substantiates ACM by presenting a corresponding procedure model along with a software system. Applying the concepts of empowerment, the knowledge worker takes on the responsibility to adapt “his” IT environment in order to achieve efficient case handling. The validation by expert interviews critically examines the feasibility both of the concept as well as the software system.
Christian Herrmann, Matthias Kurz

Towards Contextual S-BPM: Method and Case Study

This paper makes the case for using Contextual Design and Subject-oriented Business Process Management (S-BPM) for analyzing complex business processes in ways that not only support, but in fact actively foster the consideration of the human elements within them. Specifically, the paper provides an outline of the defining characteristics of Contextual Design and S-BPM, following which it presents an outline of an ongoing case study. The presentation of the latter focuses on the lessons learnt and benefits derived from the proposed approach. Overall, Contextual Design allows including in a systematic way the work, usability and technology requirements for the S-BPM method. The combined methodology connects efficient business process management with appropriate contextual design in the workplace. The case study shows that this approach has a high potential for complex business process with specific contextual challenges and for the improvement of business processes with the employment of mobile electronic communication and information technology.
David Bonaldi, Alexandra Totter, Eva Pinter

smart4sense2act: A Smart Concept for Systemic Performance Management

smart4sense2act (read: smart for sense to act) is a technology-supported solution for systemic performance management and corporate governance. Be it strategic planning, organisational development or project mangement, smart4sense2act offers one method and one web-based tool for different tasks. By means of integrated information and subject-oriented process-management, processes can be created and evaluated quickly and directly as well as integrated into every-day-business on the grounds of actual needs. Therefore, smart4sense2act is barrier-free as well as quick and easy to use. The principle of smart4sense2act is a stakeholder based systemic and structured seizing, analysing and arranging of tasks. This is assured by considering all relevant stakeholders and factors of influence and the possibility of the quick and direct implementation of results within assessable processes ready for implementation within the organisation. The goal of smart4sense2act is to obtain a holistic understanding of tasks and processes through bridging the gap between theory and operation. This approach supports organisations in gaining a more solid and sustainable performance management.
Fritz Bastarz, Patrick Halek

Modeling Needs in the BPM Consulting Process

Business Process Management is a complex assembly of activities with the need for various methodologies in order to achieve the relevant goals. Different approaches and visualization requirements have to be taken into account to fulfill the demand of the roles involved. It is the consultant´s choice, which methods to choose. The article pledges for a variety of methods instead of only one single-sided view at the challenge. Subject orientation is only one approach to support BPM.
Stefan Reinheimer

Subject Modeling in Residential Care Services

Residential Care Services operate under high pressure: Raising quality requirements collide with time and legally defined cost constraints. Different from other service branches, prices are not dependant on realized costs and services for patients’ care. Residential care service employees’ real activities and cognitive workloads were not taken into account. A detailed process model including subject modeling is overdue. The described process model is the first approach in Germany with the goal to optimize structures and processes in residential care services. Empirical values by an experience group are used to optimize the services and enable change management by building models and simulations. The article shows two parts of the reference model: The initial reception and the billing process. An example of a subject model in the initial reception process shows the usage in a standard tool for modeling and simulation. The results already changed the processes of participating companies of the experience group.
Hans-Günter Lindner

Project4Sure X: Accelerating Implementation Projects for the Microsoft Dynamics Suite with BPM 2.0

Implementation projects for the Microsoft Dynamics NAV, AX, and CRM family are typically conducted according to the Sure Step methodology. The Project4Sure approach extends this methodology with a software solution that assists in managing and controlling large implementation projects. This contribution proposes an extension to the Project4Sure methodology and software platform that provides a process centric approach to analyzing and realizing business requirements for projects implementing the above-mentioned ERP systems. While classical ERP implementation approaches tend to focus on the requirements laid out by managers and the IT department, the new approach integrates concepts of BPM 2.0. By utilizing the expertise of the individuals in the operational departments, it can be ensured that ERP implementations match the requirements of the actual business users.
Matthias Kurz, Thomas Schaller, Dominik Reichelt, Michael Ferschl

Consolidating Business Processes as Exemplified in SAP ERP Systems

A thorough semantic comparison of usage of business processes must be established as a preliminary stage to consolidating IT systems. In praxis, this step is frequently omitted from IT projects. This condition cannot be ascribed to lack of knowledge on the part of the project manager; rather, the reason lies in the high degree of complexity, intricacy and interdependency of business processes. Project managers are apprehensive of the time and effort involved in the early project phase and neglect it in favor of concrete action, and get bogged down in details for lack of a sound and logical overall approach. The result is system consolidation in the mere technical sense – business processes are neither standardized nor homogenized. In light of the significance consolidation bears on business (in the US in 2005 there were 7,736 mergers and acquisitions, totaling an average sum of 385 million USD [5]), it is costly to leave consolidation projects to chance. The following article introduces principles and procedures for consolidating business processes that aim to compensate forthe deficit of scientifically documented findings.
Andreas Hufgard, Eduard Gerhardt

Technological Advancements


Platform for Managing and Routing Cross-Organizational Business Processes on a Network Router

Today’s business process- and workflow management is not limited to organizational borders but relates to network structures. Customers, partners and suppliers need to be supported on the basis of coordinated value added chains. The respective workflow engines however are in most cases sealed off by a corporate network and thus not reachable from outside without further ado. In this article we will revise our jCPEX! approach for connecting inter-organizational business process and present a solution where the jCPEX! platform resolves the mentioned impediment of private networks by being provided on a network router that connects the external net with the corporate network of an organization, making a separate DMZ superfluous for this purpose.
Nils Meyer, Markus Radmayr, Richard Heininger, Thomas Rothschädl, Albert Fleischmann

ePASS-IoS 1.1: Enabling Inter-enterprise Business Process Modeling by S-BPM and the Internet of Services Concept

The future “Internet of Services” (IoS) will provide an open environment allowing market participants to offer and consume services over Internet marketplaces. It gives businesses the opportunity to outsource parts of their business processes. This leads to networks of cooperating businesses with a distributed execution of processes and provides a good support for inter-enterprise modeling. Many methods have been proposed to describe such processes, however most only focus on certain aspects and fall short of others. We present ePASS-IoS, a unified approach to describe processes and service choreographies with well-defined execution and verification semantics. With the formulation of the well-known workflow and interaction patterns in ePASS-IoS, we show that its expressiveness is adequate. To clearly define the semantics of the language, we formalize it using a process algebra.
Stephan Borgert, Joachim Steinmetz, Max Mühlhäuser

Experience Reports


CGAA/EES at NEC Corporation, Powered by S-BPM: The Subject-Oriented BPM Development Technique Using Top-Down Approach

It is not that difficult to visualize business processes as a model and execute them using today’s BPMS products. However, it is difficult for a worker at a work site to simply and clearly model processes to be executed, and then express with certainty the business scenario within the entire company’s activities to which those processes are related. In addition, a shorter cycle for continuous BPM improvement activity is strongly desired, where the model is improved from results gathered as processes based on that model are executed. The "CGAA/EES development methodology" developed by NEC provides an overall optimization solution that overcomes these issues by bringing a top-down approach to subject-oriented BPM.
Shinji Nakamura, Toshihiro Tan, Takeshi Hirayama, Hiroyuki Kawai, Shota Komiyama, Sadao Hosaka, Minoru Nakamura, Katsuhiro Yuki

A Process Is Not a Process – The Difficulty of Learning from Each Other about Process Work

To enable different technical departments to learn from each other in their process work or ideally to complement each other, a better understanding of each other’s intentions in process work has to be developed. For the primary disciplines of process documentation, process optimisation and process control, essential context situations are illustrated and the necessary levels of detail as well as the bridge to IT design are discussed.
Martin Turinsky

Agile Process Management in an Industrial R&D Department

In a more and more dynamic world market with tougher competition and external, unpredictable risks, an integrated business process management is a key success factor. It is of high importance to be able to flexibly respond to continuously changing environmental requirements and thus ensure the essential agility. Qualitative and successful operational activities without defined processes are just feasible in micro organizations. The bigger an organization is the more important well-known and, in particular, documented processes become for the employees. Especially in large organizations with a variety of value-adding business processes, it is moreover of great importance to build up a consistent change management and stakeholder management, which work closely with the actual business process management for the successful execution of the processes or the goal-oriented structure of the actual business process management.
Marco Strauss, Siri Lang

Differences in Business Process Management between Global Players and Micro Enterprises - Experiences from Practice

Based on the experiences of the authors the differences in managing processes between micro enterprises and global players are analyzed. Of course the result of this investigation also is a list of best practices and lessons learned which are common for managing business processes for all types and sizes of companies. These show entry points for subjects to deal with Business Process Management and therefore starting points for S-BPM practices.
Jörg Bindner, Gunther Mayer-Leixner

An Approach to Agility in Enterprise Innovation

The midline results of a scientific survey of the definition of requirements for the development of an innovative ECM system are presented. These results were obtained during the second stage of a complex project carried out through Government Grant with participation of NRU and IT Corporation (Russia). The particular research is based on 3 scopes: 1) Enterprise Content Management (ECM) system as roofing, 2) umbellate Total Content Management system (TCM); 3) process-based enterprise innovation activity and subject-oriented approach to BPM.
Alexander Gromoff, Valery Chebotarev, Kristin Evina, Yulia Stavenko

Methods of Process Modeling in the Context of Civil Services by the Example of German Notaries

The project STERN aims to support German notaries to implement a secure electronic communication structure involving numerous governmental and private parties. Communication is an integral part of the business process in a notary’s office and has to be handled economically, fast, easy, trustworthy, and secure. Therefore, a careful analysis of the notarial workflows is in order. A variety of process modeling techniques is explored to identify their suitability for distributed and communication intensive workflows. To identify the best modeling approach, evaluation criteria were established. Some typical tasks of the application domain were modeled with the different methods and finally presented to and discussed with notaries. The results of this study are presented and an outlook on the further course of the project is given.
Barbara Handy, Max Dirndorfer, Josef Schneeberger, Herbert Fischer

Business Process Management: A Survey among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

The purpose of this research is to evaluate to which degree small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) use process management techniques and methods. The findings result from 20 interviews that were conducted in 11 small- and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing and service sector in Austria. The information retrieved from the interviews was used to rate the overall process management performance of the company. The underlying maturity model for this rating process is based on an adaption of Michael Hammers Process and Enterprise Maturity Model (PEMM). Service companies, in average, reached a higher maturity level than manufacturer did. Also companies that are active in the IT sector had a higher maturity level than companies from other industries. It turned out that there seems to be a strong connection between leadership and the maturity of business process management within the company. This article provides an insight into the process-related activities of small and medium enterprises in Austria. It is explained how business process management is relevant to SMEs.
Patrick Feldbacher, Peter Suppan, Christina Schweiger, Robert Singer


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