Sales promotions are a marketing tool for manufacturers as well as for retailers. Manufacturers use them to increase sales to retailers (trade promotions) and consumers (consumer promotions). Our focus will be on retailer promotions, which are used by retailers to increase sales to consumers. Typical examples of retailer promotions are temporary price reductions (TPRs), features, and displays.
Sales promotions have an important role in the marketing programs of retailers. A large percentage of retailer sales is made on promotion, as illustrated by the numbers in Figure 1. Also, retailer promotions address consumers at the point of sale. Thus, while advertising in classic media is becoming less effective, communication through promotions reaches the consumer at the place and time where most purchase decisions are made. The Point of Purchase Advertising Institute (POPAI) finds in a study from 1999 that the in-store decision rate of consumers in Germany, for example, is 55 %, meaning that more than half of all purchase decisions are made in stores, as opposed to before the shopping trip.