A model, which explains scale effects in mechanical properties and tribology is presented. Mechanical properties are scale dependent based on the strain gradient plasticity and the effect of dislocation-assisted sliding. Both single asperity and multiple asperity contacts are considered. The relevant scaling length is the nominal contact length — contact diameter for a single-asperity contact, and scan length for multiple-asperity contacts. For multiple asperity contacts, based on an empirical power-rule for scale dependence of roughness, contact parameters are calculated. The effect of load on the contact parameters and the coefficient of friction is also considered. During sliding, adhesion and two- and three-body deformation, as well as ratchet mechanism, contribute to the dry friction force. These components of the friction force depend on the relevant real areas of contact (dependent on roughness and mechanical properties), average asperity slope, number of trapped particles, and shear strength during sliding. Scale dependence of the components of the coefficient of friction is studied. A scale dependent transition index, which is responsible for transition from predominantly elastic adhesion to plastic deformation has been proposed. Scale dependence of the wet friction, wear, and interface temperature has been also analyzed. The proposed model is used to explain the trends in the experimental data for various materials at nanoscale and microscale, which indicate that nanoscale values of coefficient of friction are lower than the microscale values due to an increase of the three-body deformation and transition from elastic adhesive contact to plastic deformation.
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- Scale Effect in Mechanical Properties and Tribology
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
in-adhesives, MKVS, Neuer Inhalt/© Zühlke, Technisches Interface Design/© scyther5 | Getty Images | iStock