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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

11. Scientific Research and the Construction of the Field of Teaching of Geography in Schools: Trends and Challenges

verfasst von : Ângela Massumi Katuta, Maria Adailza Martins de Albuquerque

Erschienen in: Brazilian Geography

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

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Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to present the cutting edge Brazilian academic–scientific production focused on the area of Teaching of Geography, limited to the years 1987–2019. This limitation is justified due to the fact that it was the period in which there was an increase in the amount of work produced, national coverage, research topics and clashes of theoretical-methodological, epistemological and political guidelines which developed the debates on the concepts of Teaching of Geography, course plans, teaching practices, research and outreach, among much other production, which influenced the field of geography taught in schools and the initial and ongoing education of professors. To do so, we will cover the origins of the field of research, the transformation which it has undergone, as well as its current configuration and challenges, with the critical, libertarian and emancipating perspective of education as a horizon for action. We have conducted qualitative and quantitative studies of books, specialist journals, dissertations and theses produced on the issue in order to reflect on the path for constructing this field of knowledge and, above all, on its challenges with a view to strengthening Piagetian education, which together with other conservative and currently neoliberal policies, have strongly impacted and continue to impact the field with regard to the expansion of the number of jobs focused on the methodologies of teaching which help to alienate the political and transformative role of education in a country of broad social and territorial inequalities, such as Brazil.

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Fußnoten
1
When referring to the field of research, we use the expression Teaching Geography, with capital letters, which differentiates it from teaching the subject.
 
2
The first courses aimed at training geography teachers in Brazil date back to the 1930s, despite having been offered free courses for this training in the previous decade (Albuquerque 2011).
 
3
Mnemonic geography was and remains a complex problem for the Teaching of Geography in Brazilian elementary schools. In the 19th century, it served a school project that was developed based on the memorization of names of places, aspects of elements of nature, such as names of rivers, mountains, lakes, etc. emphasizing quantitative data to cover up colonial domination and territorial organization supported by large estates and slavery. Later, during the military dictatorship, it was used by conservative and authoritarian projects to hide the exploitation of the working classes by international and national capital and even today, even in the face of the development of analytical approaches based on the awareness and understanding of spatial processes, it still remains in part. significant from schools.
 
4
Colégio Pedro II was the first public secondary education institution founded in 1837 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then capital of the Empire of Brazil. This, over time, became a reference for secondary schools that were founded in Brazilian provinces. Their Teaching Programs, the name given to the curricula at the time, should be followed by the provincial Lyceums.
 
6
“Trend seen in the 70s, inspired by behaviorist theories of learning and the systemic approach to teaching, which defined a highly controlled and teacher-directed pedagogical practice with mechanical activities inserted in a rigid educational proposal that could be fully programmed in detail. According to educator José Mário Pires Azanha, what is valued in this perspective is not the teacher, but the technology, and the teacher becomes a mere specialist in the application of manuals and his creativity is within the possible and narrow limits of the technique. used. “This guidance was given to schools by official bodies during the 1960s and until today it persists in many courses with the presence of didactic manuals with a strictly technical and instrumental character”.” Source: Menezes (2001).
 
7
Unfortunately, in Brazil, even today, many misunderstand it as research-oriented training. Underlying this understanding, there is another that, little by little, advances, with the strengthening of postgraduate courses and, above all, after the creation of the Teaching Initiation Program—PIBID which, according to Freitas (2016), caused a transformation of understandings, summarized in the theme of his dissertation: “Training professors-researchers in a bachelor's school: the PIBID culture of geography at UNICAMP”—State University of Campinas/State of São Paulo/Brazil.
 
8
Denomination given to the two levels of schooling that made up the eight years of basic education, established by Law 5,692/71, which establishes Guidelines and Bases for teaching 1st and 2nd grades.
 
9
Here we call “non-specialists” authors who wrote about school geography, however, their research did not refer to topics related to the field.
 
10
“The program offers scholarships for teaching initiation to students from on-site courses who dedicate themselves to internships in public schools and who, when they graduate, are committed to teaching in the public network. The objective is to anticipate the link between future masters and public classrooms. With this initiative, Pibid articulates higher education (through licensure), the school and state and municipal systems. The program's intention is to unite state and municipal education departments and public universities in favor of improving teaching in public schools where the Basic Education Development Index (Ideb) is below the national average of 4.4. Among the Pibid proposals is the encouragement of a teaching career in the areas of basic education with the greatest shortage of teachers with specific training: Science and Mathematics, from the fifth to eighth grades of elementary school, and Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics for teaching medium” (Available at: <http://​portal.​mec.​gov.​br/​pibid#:​~:​text=​PIBID%20​%2D%20​Apresenta%C3%A7%C3%A3o&​text=​A%20​inten%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20​do%20​programa%20​%C3%A9,national%2C%20​de%20​4%2C4> Because it is a program, it is changed according to the concepts that guide the actions of the Ministry of Education, so , we chose to present the characterization present on the website of the aforementioned ministry.
 
11
“Initially, the Pedagogical Residency is linked to the formation of the subjects of the National Common Curricular Base. The program is one of the actions that are part of the National Teacher Training Policy. With the aim of improving practical training in undergraduate courses, it promotes the immersion of the licentiate in the basic education school from the second half of their course.” Available at: <http://​portal.​mec.​gov.​br/​component/​tags/​tag/​45681>. As it is a program, it is changed according to the concepts that guide the actions of the Ministry of Education, so we chose to present the characterization present on the website of the aforementioned ministry.
 
12
In 2020, AGB organized a map of active local Sections that serve to elucidate the entity's capillarity, which, in the years 1980 to 1990, was even greater. Available at: <https://​www.​agb.​org.​br/​mapa-das-secoes-locais-ativas-2020/​?​unapproved=​853&​moderation-hash=​997eb3ca4a27ad7c​869bc5441c07ebc5​#comment-853>.
 
13
To access the history of the event, narrated by Zeno Soares Crocetti, see: <http://​geocrocetti.​com/​zeno/​falahistgeo.​htm>.
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Scientific Research and the Construction of the Field of Teaching of Geography in Schools: Trends and Challenges
verfasst von
Ângela Massumi Katuta
Maria Adailza Martins de Albuquerque
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3704-0_11