Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Based on the results of the analyses on the relationship between economy and the environment in preceding chapters, this chapter explores a vision into the future.
The relationship between economy and the environment needs to be coordinated by institutions, though they are not easily formulated under the globalization of both economy and the environmental problems. Spatial and temporal distance between polluters and victims is disconnecting the feedback loop of the system.
Faced with this problem, we need to seek new mechanisms that complement this feedback. One possibility is a mechanism that the global structure and individual activities evolve by interacting with each other. International agreements and standards, even if weak, can encourage individual actors (e.g., companies, citizens) to take actions; and individual actions can strengthen momentum to establish stricter international rules. States can intermediate this interaction. This possible circulative mechanism can be regarded as the “micro-macro loop” of environmental measures. Another possibility is exploration of local configurations. In local areas where economy, environment, and society function in close relationship, advanced forms of coordination may be realized. If diverse forms of socioeconomic configuration are prepared, those better fitting can be chosen and diffused when going through a structural change under crisis. This can be considered as a “parallel experimentation” of evolutionary process.
States can strengthen environmental measures by pursuing mid-term Green Growth. Using the time and resources that this buys, they should implement policies with a longer-range perspective aiming at evolutionary effects as described above.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
There are a range of views on the relationship between the micro-macro loop and institutions. Shiozawa ( 1999) explained that institutions exist in a special dimension, preparing stages upon which micro activities and macro aggregated processes develop, while mentioning the possibility of analyzing the relationship between institutions and actors through the framework of the micro-macro loop. Uemura et al. ( 2007) explained that there are double loops: one between micro actors and various institutions, and another between micro actors and macroeconomic performances. Here, while understanding that institutions can relate both to the micro and the macro, we place them in the macro in the sense that global institutions, which are our focus, are difficult for individual actors to control.
On the idea of a meso level to intermediate micro and macro levels, there are a range of views, from one identifying institutions and customs as intermediates to another denying such ideas (Japan Association for Evolutionary Economics 2006). Here, recognizing the dual nature of the state, which appears as a macro system determining the conditions of activities, when viewed by individuals/companies, but appears as a micro actor, deciding and implementing policies, when seen within the global economy and international negotiations, we use the expression of “intermediate” to identify the state, focusing on its capacity to influence both the micro and the macro in certain directions.
When new industrial districts attracted attention as regional structures of post-Fordism, they already raised concerns that local institutional coordination would not be easy to maintain under a global neoliberal economy (Peck and Tickell 1994).
There are views that structural changes toward economies centering on information and services would enable continuous growth. This may be regarded as a transformation to the society emphasizing intellectual/spiritual values than material ones. However, it should not be neglected that information always involves matter and energy as media, as Daly ( 1996) pointed to. Moreover, it should be questioned whether wider market-transaction of knowledge and information is really desirable or not, because enclosing them for trade out of freely shared commons may impede intellectual or spiritual development of the whole society. As the emerging hypothesis of “cognitive capitalism” indicates, it may have a hidden meaning that the extensive expansion of the production system finally reaches the domain of knowledge and life beyond labor and the environmental resources (e.g. Moulier-Boutang 2011).
Sen ( 1999) emphasized the importance of freedom to live a life that one has reason to value and of capability to enable it as the aim of economic development.
Amable B (2003) The diversity of modern capitalism. Oxford University Press, Oxford CrossRef
Benko G, Lipietz A (1998) From the regulation of space to the space of regulation. GeoJournal 44(4):275–281 CrossRef
Boyer R (1992) The second grand transformation (in Japanese; trans: Inoue Y). Fujiwara-shoten, Tokyo
Daly H (1996) Beyond growth: the economics of sustainable development. Beacon Press, Boston
Ellerman D (2014) Parallel experimentation: a basic sheme for dynamic efficiency. J Bioecon 16:259–287 CrossRef
Hall P, Soskice D (eds) (2001) Varieties of capitalism: the institutional foundations of comparative advantage. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Japan Association for Evolutionary Economics (2006) Handbook of evolutionary economics (in Japanese). Kyouritsu, Tokyo
Krätke S (1999) A regulationist approach to regional studies. Environ Plan A 31:687–704 CrossRef
Lebougne D, Lipietz A (1991) Two social strategies in the production of new industrial spaces. In: Benko G, Dunford M (eds) Industrial change and regional development: the transformation of new industrial spaces. Belhaven Press, London, pp 27–50
Moulier-Boutang Y (2011) Cognitive capitalism. Polity, Cambridge
Norgaard RB (1994) Development betrayed: the end of progress and a coevolutionary revisioning of the future. Routledge, New York
Ostrom E (1990) Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge CrossRef
Peck J, Tickell A (1994) Searching for a new institutional fix: the after-Fordist crisis and the global-local disorder. In: Amin A (ed) Post-Fordism: a reader. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 280–315 CrossRef
Polanyi K (1957) Great transformation. Beacon Press, Boston
Porter ME (1998) On competition. Harvard Business School Press, Boston
Prigogine I, Stengers I (1984) Order out of chaos: mans’ new dialogue with nature. Alvin Toffler Bantam Books, New York
Scott AJ (1998) Regions and the world economy: the coming shape of global production, competition, and political order. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Sen A (1999) Development as freedom. Alfred A Knopf, New York
Shiozawa Y (1999) On micro-macro loop (in Japanese). Keizai Ronsou (Kyoto University) 164(5):1–73
Storper M (1997) The regional world: territorial development in a global economy. Guilford Press, New York
Uemura H, Isogai A, Ebizuka A (2007) Institutional analysis of socioeconomic system (in Japanese). The University of Nagoya Press, Nagoya
- Searching for a Vision into the Future
- Springer Singapore
- Chapter 10
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta