Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

Addressing the rising security issues during the design stages of cyber-physical systems, this book develops a systematic approach to address security at early design stages together with all other design constraints. Cyber-attacks become more threatening as systems are becoming more connected with the surrounding environment, infrastructures, and other systems. Security mechanisms can be designed to protect against attacks and meet security requirements, but there are many challenges of applying security mechanisms to cyber-physical systems including open environments, limited resources, strict timing requirements, and large number of devices.
Designed for researchers and professionals, this book is valuable for individuals working in network systems, security mechanisms, and system design. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
As computational technology advances, more and more systems in daily life are controlled or supported by algorithms and computers. The most representative evolution includes the fly-by-wire and the drive-by-wire of aircraft and automotive systems which are no longer pure mechanical systems. This kind of systems combining computations and physical behaviors are called cyber-physical systems, where “cyber” represents the computational part, and “physical” represents the physical behavior. Besides aircraft and automotive systems, other common cyber-physical systems include medical devices, smart grids, and robotics. Many of them are safety-critical systems, and a fault may cause serious consequences or even endanger users in extreme circumstances.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 2. Security Threats in Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract
Traditional security terminology describes high-level attacking scenarios.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 3. Security-Aware Design Methodology

Abstract
A general security-aware design methodology is introduced in this chapter to provide insights and guidelines for security-aware design problems for cyber-physical systems which usually have limited resources and strict constraints. The methodology includes three major components: security-aware mapping, security mechanism selection, and architecture selection, to address security at early design stages together with all other design constraints.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 4. Security Mechanisms for CAN Protocol

Abstract
As mentioned in Chap. 2, security has become a pressing issue for automotive electronic systems. This is because modern automotive electronics systems are distributed as they are implemented with software running over networked Electronic Control Units (ECU) communicating via serial buses and gateways, but most systems have not been designed with security in mind. This is because the current processes, methods, and tools used for designing current automotive electronics systems focus on safety, reliability, and cost optimization.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 5. Security-Aware Mapping for CAN-Based Systems

Abstract
The mechanisms in Chap. 4 can protect against masquerade and replay attacks for the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol. However, adding Message Authentication Code (MAC) and counter bits to an existing design may not lead to optimal or even feasible systems because there may not be enough space in messages for the required MAC and counter bits because of the message length limitation (only 64 bits for payload in the CAN protocol [3]).
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 6. Security-Aware Mapping for TDMA-Based Systems

Abstract
This chapter focuses on security-aware design for Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based real-time distributed systems. The TDMA-based protocol is a very representative synchronous protocol and an abstraction of many existing protocols, such as the FlexRay [7], the Time-Triggered Protocol [45], and the Time-Triggered Ethernet [44]. It is critically important to address these protocols, as they are being increasingly adopted in various safety-critical systems such as automotive and avionics electronic systems for their more predictable timing behavior. Compared with priority-based networks such as the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol, TDMA-based systems have fundamental differences on system modeling (in particular for latency modeling), on security mechanism selection (a global time is available for security reasons), on design space (network scheduling is the focus of this work but not a factor for CAN-based systems), and on algorithm design. Therefore, the approaches for CAN-based systems in the previous chapter do not apply to TDMA-based systems. It is needed to rethink appropriate security mechanisms and develop a new set of formulations and algorithms to explore the design space.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 7. Security-Aware Design for V2V Communication

Abstract
In this chapter, the security-aware design methodology is further applied to Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications with the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) technology. DSRC enables the development of many safety applications such as forward collision avoidance, lane change warning (blind spot warning), and left turn assist (Harding et al. Vehicle-to-vehicle communications: readiness of V2V technology for application, 2014, [11]).
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 8. FSM-Based Security-Aware Design

Abstract
As mentioned in Chap. 1, cyber-physical systems usually have many challenges of applying security mechanisms.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 9. Graph-Based Security-Aware Design

Abstract
In this chapter, two general security-aware design problems are introduced. The first one considers multiple communication paths in a system, and the second one considers network partitioning in a system. Both problems can be realized by graphs.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Chapter 10. Conclusions

Abstract
In this book, to address security with limited resources and strict constraints in cyber-physical systems, a general security-aware design methodology is proposed in Chap. 2 to consider security together with other design constraints at design stages.
Chung-Wei Lin, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen