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This chapter focuses on security-aware design for Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based real-time distributed systems. The TDMA-based protocol is a very representative synchronous protocol and an abstraction of many existing protocols, such as the FlexRay , the Time-Triggered Protocol , and the Time-Triggered Ethernet . It is critically important to address these protocols, as they are being increasingly adopted in various safety-critical systems such as automotive and avionics electronic systems for their more predictable timing behavior. Compared with priority-based networks such as the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol, TDMA-based systems have fundamental differences on system modeling (in particular for latency modeling), on security mechanism selection (a global time is available for security reasons), on design space (network scheduling is the focus of this work but not a factor for CAN-based systems), and on algorithm design. Therefore, the approaches for CAN-based systems in the previous chapter do not apply to TDMA-based systems. It is needed to rethink appropriate security mechanisms and develop a new set of formulations and algorithms to explore the design space.
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If the synchronization precision is considered, one can add a small positive constant (the precision of time) to the left-hand side.
The most common comparison is between a Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) and the RSA algorithm, and HMAC (based on XOR and hash function) is usually much faster than RSA (based on exponentiation and modular arithmetic).
Note that the second approach can be regarded as a special case of the third approach. Both of them try to minimize transmission delays of packets.
The concept here is that the densest part of the packet arrival pattern is served by the least dense part of the schedule pattern.
Here, utilization is defined as the ratio of the number of used (not scheduled) time slots to the number of total time slots.
- Security-Aware Mapping for TDMA-Based Systems
- Chapter 6