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It is well known that masonry buildings suffer a great deal of damage during earthquakes, leading to significant loss of lives. Almost 75% of the fatalities, attributed to earthquake in the last century, are caused by collapse of buildings of which the greatest portion (more than 70%) is due to collapse of masonry buildings. A majority of the tenements in India are unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings that are weak and vulnerable even under moderate earthquakes. On the other hand, a cursory glance through the literature on earthquake-resistant structures reveals that a bulk of research efforts is on RC structures. Clearly there is a great need to expend more effort in understanding masonry buildings subjected to earthquake-induced dynamic loads.
In this chapter, an unreinforced masonry building located in Guwahati is considered for seismic evaluation. The process of seismic evaluation involves linear static and nonlinear static (pushover) analysis. The seismic evaluation has been done initially by calculating demand-to-capacity ratios (DCRs) for each wall segment using linear static and dynamic analyses. A prerequisite for pushover analysis is the definition of the possible locations and types of the plastic hinges that might develop along the span of each element. The walls in the building modelled as equivalent frame elements with appropriate hinge properties as per FEMA 273. Results of nonlinear analysis show that building is globally safe as per ATC-40 capacity spectrum method but the building is unable to achieve target displacements calculated as per FEMA 356 displacement coefficient method. However, linear analysis shows that some wall segments cross the permissible shear stresses.
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ATC 40 (1996) Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings, vol 1. Applied Technology Council, Redwood City
FEMA 273 (1997) NEHRP guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. American Society of Civil Engineers, Washington, DC
FEMA 356 (2000) Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. American Society of Civil Engineers, Washington, DC
IS 1893 Part 1 (2002) Indian standard criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
IS 1905 (1987) Code of practice for structural use of un-reinforced masonry. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
IS 2212 (1991) Brick work – code of practice. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
Jurina L, Peano A (1982) Characterization of brick masonry stiffness by numerical modelling and in situ flat-jack test results. In: Proceedings of the sixth international brick masonry conference. Rome, pp 177–188, 16–19 May 1982
SAP 2000 (2009) Integrated software for structural analysis and design, version 14.0. Computers & Structures, Inc., Berkeley
- Seismic Evaluation of Existing Unreinforced Masonry Building
- Springer India
in-adhesives, MKVS, Zühlke/© Zühlke