Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
“Character is an integration of habits of conduct superimposed on temperament. It is the will exercised on disposition, thoughts, emotion and action. Will is character in action.” – Vince Lombardi
Evidence from a growing number of studies suggests leader character as a means to advance leadership knowledge and practice. Based on this evidence, we propose a process model depicting how leader character manifests in ethical leadership that has positive psychological and performance outcomes for leaders, along with the moderating effect of leaders’ self-control on the character strength–ethical leadership–outcomes relationships. We tested this model using multisource data from 218 U.S. Air Force officers (who rated their honesty/humility, empathy, moral courage, self-control, and psychological flourishing) and their subordinates (who rated their officer’s ethical leadership) and superiors (who rated the officers’ in-role performance). Findings provide initial support for leader character as a mechanism triggering positive outcomes such that only when officers reported a high level of self-control did their honesty/humility, empathy, and moral courage manifest in ethical leadership, associated with higher levels of psychological flourishing and in-role performance. We discuss the implications of these results for future theory development, research, and practice.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Aquino, K., & Reed, I. I., A (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440. CrossRef
Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO–60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(4), 340–345. CrossRef
Babalola, M. T., Stouten, J., Camps, J., & Euwema, M. (2017). When do ethical leaders become less effective? The moderating role of perceived leader ethical conviction on employee discretionary reactions to ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3472-z. CrossRef
Bandalos, D. L. (2002). The effects of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(1), 78–102. CrossRef
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1991a). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45–103). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bandura, A. (1991b). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248–287. CrossRef
Bass, B. M. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research and managerial applications (4th edn.). New York: Free Press.
Baumeister, R. F., & Exline, J. J. (1999). Virtue, personality and social relations: Self-control as the moral muscle. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 1165–1194. CrossRef
Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 351–355. CrossRef
Bedi, A., Alpaslan, C. N., & Green, S. (2016). A meta-analytic review of ethical leadership outcomes and moderators. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(3), 517–536. CrossRef
Bernerth, J. B., & Hirschfeld, R. R. (2016). The subjective well-being of group leaders as explained by the quality of leader-member exchange. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(4), 697–710. CrossRef
Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Brown, M. E., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Ethical and unethical leadership: Exploring new avenues for future research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 583–616. CrossRef
Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616. CrossRef
Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134. CrossRef
de Ridder, D. T. D., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stork, F. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). Taking stock of self-control: A meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), 76–99. CrossRef
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 143–156. CrossRef
Gavin, J. H., Campbell-Quick, J., Cooper, C. L., & Quick, J. D. (2003). A spirit of personal inquiry: The role of character in executive health. Organizational Dynamics, 32(2), 165–179. CrossRef
Gentry, W. A., Cullen, K., Sosik, J. J., Chun, J. U., Leopold, C., & Tonidandel, S. (2013). Integrity’s place in the character strengths of middle-level managers and top-level executives. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(3), 395–404. CrossRef
Hagger, M. S. (2015). Conservation of resources theory and the ‘strength’ model of self-control: Conceptual overlap and commonalities. Stress and Health, 31(2), 89–94. CrossRef
Hagger, M. S., Wood, C., Stiff, C., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2010). Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 495–525. CrossRef
Harbour, M., & Kisfalvi, V. (2014). In the eye of the beholder: An exploration of managerial courage. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(4), 493–515. CrossRef
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524. CrossRef
Hogan, R. (1969). Development of an empathy scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33(3), 307–316. CrossRef
Johnson, J. A., Cheek, J. M., & Smither, R. (1983). The structure of empathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(6), 1299–1312. CrossRef
Johnson, M. K., Rowan, W. C., & Petrini, L. (2011). A new trait on the market: Honesty-humility as a unique predictor of job performance ratings. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(6), 857–862. CrossRef
Joseph, D. L., Dhanani, L. Y., Shen, W., McHugh, B. C., & McCord, M. A. (2015). Is a happy leader a good leader? A meta-analytic investigation of leader trait affect and leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(4), 558–577. CrossRef
Kellett, J. B., Humphrey, R. H., & Sleeth, R. G. (2002). Empathy and complex task performance: Two routes to leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(5), 523–544. CrossRef
Krause, N., & Hayward, R. D. (2015). Virtues, practical wisdom and psychological wellbeing: A Christian perspective. Social Indicators Research, 122(3), 735–755. CrossRef
Kugelmann, R. (2013). Willpower. Theory & Psychology, 23(4), 479–498. CrossRef
Luthans, F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. M. (2017). Psychological capital: An evidenced-based positive approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 339–366. CrossRef
Mahsud, R., Yukl, G., & Prussia, G. (2010). Leader empathy, ethical leadership, and relations-oriented behaviors as antecedents of leader-member exchange quality. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(6), 561–577. CrossRef
Maraniss, D. (1999). When pride still mattered: A life of Vince Lombardi. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Offstein, E. H., Madhavan, R., & Gnyawali, D. R. (2006). Pushing the frontier of LMX research: The contribution of triads. In G. Graen & J. A. Graen (Eds.), Sharing network leadership (pp. 95–117). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Owens, B. P., & Hekman, D. R. (2012). Modeling how to grow: An inductive examination of humble leader behaviors, contingencies, and outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 787–818. CrossRef
Palanski, M. E., Cullen, K. L., Gentry, W. A., & Nicholas, C. M. (2015). Virtuous leadership: Exploring the effects of leader courage and behavioral integrity on leader performance and image. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(2), 297–310. CrossRef
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569. CrossRef
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypothesis: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185–227. CrossRef
Reynolds, S. J. (2008). Moral attentiveness: Who pays attention to the moral aspects of life? Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1027–1041. CrossRef
Riggio, R. E., Zhu, W., Reina, C., & Maroosis, J. A. (2010). Virtue-based measurement of ethical leadership: The Leadership Virtue Questionnaire. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62(4), 235–250. CrossRef
Schlenker, B. R. (2008). Integrity and character: Implications of principled and expedient ethical ideologies. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(10), 1078–1125. CrossRef
Sekerka, L. E., Bagozzi, R. P., & Charnigo, R. (2009). Facing ethical challenges in the workplace: Conceptualizing and measuring professional moral courage. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 565–579. CrossRef
Six, F. E., de Bakker, F. G. A., & Huberts, L. W. (2007). Judging a corporate leader’s integrity: An illustrative three component model. European Management Journal, 25(3), 185–194. CrossRef
Sosik, J. J. (2015). Leading with character: Stories of valor and virtue and the principles they teach (2nd edn.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Sosik, J. J., Chun, J. U., & Ete, Z. (2018). Character and leadership. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief), J. S. Milo & R. E. Riggio (Eds.) Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. Clinical, applied, and cross-cultural research (Vol. IV). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley ( in press).
Sosik, J. J., Gentry, W. A., & Chun, J. U. (2012). The value of virtue in the upper echelons: A multisource examination of executive character strengths and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 367–382. CrossRef
Stephano, S. F., & Wasylyshyn, K. M. (2005). Integrity, courage, empathy (ICE): Three leadership essentials. Human Resource Planning, 28(4), 5–7.
Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2), 271–324. CrossRef
United States Air Force. (2015a). America’s air force: A profession of arms. “The little blue book.” Washington, DC: Department of Defense.
United States Air Force. (2015b). Catalogue of doctrine topics (Volume 2: Leadership). Washington, DC: Department of Defense.
Wang, G., & Hackett, R. D. (2016). Conceptualization and measurement of virtuous leadership: Doing well by doing good. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(2), 321–345. CrossRef
Williams, J. J., & Seaman, A. E. (2016). The influence of ethical leadership on managerial performance: Mediating effects of mindfulness and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Applied Business Research, 32(3), 815–828. CrossRef
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601–617. CrossRef
Wright, T. A., & Quick, J. C. (2011). The role of character in ethical leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(5), 975–978. CrossRef
Zhu, W., Trevino, L., & Zheng, X. (2016). Ethical leaders and their followers: The transmission of moral attentiveness and moral identity. Business Ethics Quarterly, 26(1), 95–115. CrossRef
- Self-control Puts Character into Action: Examining How Leader Character Strengths and Ethical Leadership Relate to Leader Outcomes
John J. Sosik
Jae Uk Chun
Fil J. Arenas
Joel A. Scherer
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta