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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference, SENSORNETS 2017, Porto, Portugal, held in February 2017, and the 7th International Conference, SENSORNETS 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, held in January 2018. The 18 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 67 submissions. The papers cover the following topics: sensor networks, including hardware of sensor networks, wireless communication protocols, sensor networks software and architectures, wireless information networks, data manipulation, signal processing, localization and object tracking through sensor networks, obstacles, applications and uses.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

TinyOS-Based WSN Performance: Default Active Message Layer vs. TKN15.4

Abstract
The applications aimed at monitoring and controlling smart homes and buildings, health, industrial environments, traffic, energy consumption, resources, and so on, are being increasingly deployed due to the advantages they provide, increasing efficiency and decreasing costs. In this context Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have become a leading solution providing the appropriate mean to get and collect data and deliver it for their processing. Sensor nodes in a WSN have resource constraints, presenting low processing power and, in some cases, restrictions in power consumption. Resources availability constraints force researchers and engineers to develop proper Operating Systems (OS) aimed at low-power wireless devices, and one of the most important and in active use is the TinyOS. This paper describes an experimental analysis and evaluation which investigates relevant features and evaluates the performance (throughput, network delay, success rate, and energy consumption) of WSN under the constraint of using the low-power-consumption-aimed chosen operating system in an harsh outdoor industrial environment for with two different protocols: Active Message (AM) layer protocol and the fully 802.15.4 compliant protocol stack TKN15.4. Based on the results we conclude that TKN15.4 is better in energy consumption and success rate. On the other hand, AM protocol allows running multiple services using the same radio, but at the cost of an excessive energy consumption.
Diego V. Queiroz, Cesar Benavente-Peces, Ruan D. Gomes

Sensor Networks: Enlarging the Attack Surface

Abstract
Sensor Networks are becoming ubiquitous as they are deployed in many applications, from the consumer electronics, home appliances, and modern vehicles to critical infrastructures and industrial control systems. With the promise of improved user experience, maintainability and automation, these sensor networks interconnect and communicate over the Internet by employing Internet-aware embedded systems: IoT devices. With such capabilities, not only can management and control systems better manage the sensor network’s efficiency and capabilities, so too can the attackers gain insight and leverage these networks and devices for malicious intent. This paper provides an overview of the evolving threats and technology trends to help address them.
Nancy Cam-Winget

On the Performance of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Channel Hopping vs. Channel Adaptive Protocols

Abstract
The standard IEEE 802.15.4e shows several improvements which makes it outperforming the predecessor IEEE 802.15.4 standard. A remarkable improvement is the use of multiple channels and the capability to choose the most convenient depending on the network links state. Hence, different techniques can be provisioned to dynamically select the most appropriate channel for establishing the link through an adaptive mechanism. During the contention-free periods, the Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode is based on channel hopping while the Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-channel Extension (DSME) mode uses either channel hopping or channel adaptation. In scenarios where channel diversity techniques are used for channel adaptation nodes links are established using the same channel as long as the channel quality (SNR) is high enough. In consequence to guarantee link best performance, its quality must be measured periodically to decide whether continue in the same channel of switch to a better performance one. Our investigation focuses on the analysis of the performance of three different approaches which pretend to take advantage of the multichannel capabilities of the new standard, based on the DSME protocol: CH-DSME which is based on a simple channel hopping mechanism, CA-DSME which employs channel adaptation, and a novel hybrid approach (H-DSME) which combines channel hopping and channel adaptation. This investigation shows that, in an industrial environment, the H-DSME outperforms both CH-DSME and CA-DSME approaches. In this work, the Castalia simulator was used to perform the simulations, using a reliable simulation model, which captures the characteristics of the wireless channel in industrial environments in long range basis. The analysis demonstrates that channel adaptation is better than channel hopping for unicast packets transmission, when links quality are continuously measured. Nevertheless, the coordinator transmit packets in broadcast mode, it is demonstrated that using channel hopping is a good alternative to deal with the quality spatial variation of the network channels.
Ruan D. Gomes, Cesar Benavente-Peces, Marcelo S. Alencar, Diego V. Queiroz, Iguatemi E. Fonseca

Advanced Infrastructure for Environmental Monitoring and Early-Warning System Integration

Abstract
In order to increase the resilience of the regional territory to extreme rainfall phenomena, LepidaSpA has enhanced an already existing IOT platform, Sensornet, created to manage heterogeneous sensor networks extended all over the entire territory of the Emilia-Romagna Region, introducing some new “virtual sensors” [1] not related to physical measures, such as rivers level or amount of rainfall, but to their estimation and forecast. The ability to manage both real and “virtual sensors” grants the possibility to integrate conventional monitoring systems, based on observed data, with innovative ones, based on estimated and forecast data, providing an advanced monitoring infrastructure not only capable to monitor the phenomena and their evolution, with greater accuracy and spatial distribution, but also to generate early warning in case of critical thresholds with a forecast up to 12/24 h, according to the simulation model used for forecast.
Stefania Nanni, Gianluca Mazzini

On Update Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract
There has been a lot of research been done in the domain of Wireless Sensor Networks in recent years. Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks are in operation in a wide range of different scenarios and applications, like energy management services, heat and water billing as well as smoke detectors. However, research and development will be continued in this domain. During the operation of such a network, software updates need to be done seldom. In contrast to this, software updates need to be done very frequently during development and testing for uploading a new firmware on umpteen nodes. In this paper, we examine such a software update for a particular, but popular and often used sensor network platform. There are already interesting research papers about the process of updating sensor nodes. Our specific focus relies on the technical part of such an update process. We will argue why these already existing update processes do not cover our defiances. The objective of our software update protocol is to enable the developer to update many nodes in a reliable and very fast fashion during the development and testing process. For this reason, energy consumption is considered only marginally. We do not need a multi-hop protocol, due to the fact that all devices are in range, e.g. in a laboratory. In this paper we survey well known update protocols and architectures for software updates in WSN, discuss the solutions and compare them to our approach. As a conclusion of our extensive simulation follows to sum up that the developed protocols do a fast and scalable as well as a reliable update.
Tobias Schwindl, Klaus Volbert, Maximilian Schwab

Indoor Localization System Using Ultra Low-Power Radio Landmarks Based on Radio Signal Strength and Travel Time

Abstract
In this paper we present a novel indoor localization system to track the emergency responders using landmarks network. The low-power landmarks are small and cost-efficient and can be integrated into the building infrastructure, such as smoke detectors with very long operation duration thanks to radio wake-up technology. During the sleep mode the landmarks consumes only 66 \(\upmu \)W and can maintain its operation up to 5 years. The positioning is achieved by combining the either the radio strength or UWB travel time and IMU based dead reckoning to overcome the disadvantages such as error due to multipath propagation and sensor drift. The experimental results show that the proposed system using either radio strength or radio travel time based ranging is able to outperform both standalone systems and meanwhile maintain the low power consumption.
Fabian Höflinger, Joan Bordoy, Rui Zhang, Yitong Quan, Amir Bannoura, Nikolas Simon, Leonhard Reindl, Christian Schindelhauer, Zhi Wang

Promoting Exercise in Wheelchairs Through Wireless Sensing and Computing in a Mobile App

Abstract
Individuals with lower mobility impairment face many barriers to regular, appropriately intense exercise. To combat these barriers and the resulting cardiometabolic disease risk, we are developing a mobile fitness system to promote and facilitate exercises which can be done in wheelchairs in the convenience of one’s home. This mobile fitness system exploits computing and wireless sensing to promote exercise in a number of ways: (A) monitoring a fitness metric which users find a reliable and trustworthy; (B) gamifying exercises; (C) healthy, friendly competition with other users; and (D) providing text notifications as reminders to exercise.
James Sunthonlap, Kevin Monsalvo, James Velasco, Jackson Tu, Christine Ong, Omar Ochoa, James Enciso, Isaac Bowser, Amit Pal, Ray D. de Leon, Roxanna Pebdani, Christine Dy, Stefan Keslacy, Deborah S. Won

Bayesian Target Identification and Classification: Application of AIS, GMTI and BFT in Command and Control Systems

Abstract
The Identification and classification of targets is one of the key capabilities of Ground based C4ISR systems, military Command and Control Systems and Combat Management Systems. It is a precondition for situational awareness and supports operational users in decision making. A correct identification is an important prerequisite to prevent fratricide and civilian collateral damages and to complete the Situational Awareness. Modern Combat Management and Surveillance systems deal with thousands of tracked objects and such an operator is unable to handle the huge amount of targets and data in an operationally acceptable timeline. Therefore an automated identification and classification process is integrated in such military systems. Typical sensors used for this task are radars, IFF and ESM sensors complemented by sources like Tactical Data Links, civil and military Airspace Control Means and flight plans.
In today’s naval combat ships and surveillance systems various additional sensors and sources like Automatic Identification System (AIS), Automatic Target Recognition (ATR), GMTI Radar and Blue Force Tracking system are available to support identification, classification and decision making. This paper gives an overview of our solution for the extension of the Bayesian identification process.
Albert Bodenmüller

An Effective Satellite Remote Sensing Tool Combining Hardware and Software Solutions

Abstract
In this paper we propose a new effective remote sensing tool combining hardware and software solutions as an extension of our previous work. In greater detail the tool consists of a low cost receiver subsystem for public weather satellites and a signal and image processing module for several tasks such as signal and image enhancement, image reconstruction and cloud detection. Our solution allows to manage data from satellites effectively with low cost components and portable software solutions. We aim at sampling and processing of the modulated signal entirely in software enabled by Software Defined Radios (SDR) and CPU computational speed overcoming hardware limitation such as high receiver noise and low ADC resolution. Since we want to extend our previous method to demodulate signals coming from various meteorological satellites, we propose a new high frequency receiving system designed to receive and demodulate signals transmitted at 1.7 GHz. The signals coming from satellites are demodulated, synchronized and enhanced by using low level image processing techniques, then cloud detection is performed by using the well known K-means clustering algorithm. The hardware and software architecture extensions make our solution able to receive and demodulate high frequency and bandwidth meteorological satellite signals, such as those transmitted by NOAA POES, NOAA GOES, EUMETSAT Metop, Meteor-M and FengYun.
Francesco Gugliuzza, Alessandro Bruno, Edoardo Ardizzone, Roberto Pirrone

Multi-channel Communication Analysis of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks in Outdoor Environments

Abstract
This paper describes a set of experimental studies, which investigates relevant properties of multi-channel wireless communications in outdoor industrial environments. Two different testbeds of IEEE 802.15.4 radios were employed in two different outdoor environments in order to evaluate the performance of the 16 channels defined by the standard. In the first environment the characteristics of the 16 channels were analyzed for 8 nodes simultaneously, and in the second environment the characteristics of the 16 channels were analyzed for 3 nodes in different positions, and in different times. From the collected data, some relevant facts are discussed, such as the spatial variations in channel quality, the differences in the characteristics of different channels, the link asymmetry, and the non-stationary characteristics of the channel. The possible problems that can arise in the deployment of industrial wireless sensor networks, based on the characteristics of the standards developed for this type of network, are described, as well as some possible solutions.
Ruan D. Gomes, Emerson B. Gomes, Iguatemi E. Fonseca, Marcelo S. Alencar, Cesar Benavente-Peces

Design of Wireless Sensor Network in the Railway Facilities

Abstract
In recent years, research and development on the condition monitoring systems using the wireless sensor network in the railway have been proceeded. The railway has a characteristic such as extending linearly, many metal objects becoming obstacles to radio wave propagation. However, there are few cases of the wireless sensor network design based on the features of the railway environment. In this study, we propose the procedure to design the wireless sensor network in the railway. And we introduce the demonstration test and the result in the railway slope based on this procedure.
Nagateru Iwasawa, Tomoki Kawamura, Nariya Iwaki, Satoko Ryuo, Michiko Nozue

Backmatter

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