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Über dieses Buch

The book offers an integrated vision on Cloud and HPC, Big Data, Analytics and virtualization in computing-oriented manufacturing, combining information and communication technologies, service-oriented control of holonic architectures as well as enterprise integration solutions based on SOA principles. It is structured in eight parts, each one grouping research and trends in digital manufacturing and service oriented manufacturing control: Cloud and Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Manufacturing, Reconfigurable and Self-organized Multi-Agent Systems for Industry and Service, Sustainability Issues in Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, Holonic and Multi-agent System Design for Industry and Service, Should Intelligent Manufacturing Systems be Dependable and Safe?, Service-oriented Management and Control of Manufacturing Systems, Engineering and Human Integration in Flexible and Reconfigurable Industrial Systems,Virtualization and Simulation in Computing-oriented Industry and Service.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Digital Transformation in Service and Computing Oriented Manufacturing

This volume gathers the peer reviewed papers which were presented at the sixth edition of the International Workshop on “Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing – SOHOMA’16” which was held on October 6–7, 2016 at the New University of Lisbon, Portugal. The book reports recent research in actual domains of the digital transformation in manufacturing and trends in future service and computing oriented manufacturing control.

Theodor Borangiu, Damien Trentesaux, André Thomas, Paulo Leitão, José Barata Oliveira

Cloud and Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Manufacturing

Frontmatter

High Availability Cloud Manufacturing System Integrating Distributed MES Agents

The paper describes a semi-heterarchical manufacturing control solution based on a private cloud infrastructure which collects data in real time from intelligent devices associated to shop-floor entities: resources and mobile devices embedding the work in process (WIP) on products during their execution cycle. The cloud platform acts as a centralized system scheduler (SS), planning jobs and allocating resources optimally at batch level, and integrates real-time data and status information from agentified shop floor devices. The cloud infrastructure is also used for storage of historic data, for manufacturing set up and control (configuring resource teams for production orders received, selecting the control strategy choice, dynamic rescheduling of order execution in case of resource failure or rush order occurrence) and for hosting the web interface for: remote cell monitoring, reception of client requests, cell configuration, raw material inventory and reports generation. Implementation and experimental results are reported.

Silviu Răileanu, Florin Anton, Theodor Borangiu

Classification of Cyber-Physical Systems Developments: Proposition of an Analysis Framework

Cyber-physical systems have encountered a huge success in the past decade in several scientific communities. The main attraction of the concept relies in the fact that it encompasses many scientific topics that were distinct before. The downside is the lack of readability of the current developments about cyber-physical systems. This work intends to introduce an analysis framework able to classify the developments. An extensive study of literature enabled to extract four major criteria that are to be used in the framework: cognitive capabilities, application domain, interaction with humans and network technologies. Several examples of literature are used to illustrate the use of the framework.

Olivier Cardin

Formal Modelling of Distributed Automation CPS with CP-Agnostic Software

This paper introduces the application of formal modelling to cyber-physical systems for the purpose of formal verification of cyber-physical agnosticism properties of decentralised automation software. Service-oriented cyber-physical systems are modelled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture. Then, the IEC 61499 model is represented in terms of SMV formal language, which is verified using the nuXmv model checker. The timestamped events mechanism is implemented in IEC 61499 using the existing syntax of the standard. The impact of jitter on the behaviour of physical system is demonstrated in both simulation within IEC 61499 execution environment and in counter-examples extracted from nuXmv. The methodology presented in this paper creates the premise for automatic verification of the cyber-physical agnosticism of systems.

Dmitrii Drozdov, Sandeep Patil, Valeriy Vyatkin

Industrial Cyber Physical Systems Supported by Distributed Advanced Data Analytics

The industry digitization is transforming its business models, organizational structures and operations, mainly promoted by the advances and the mass utilization of smart methods, devices and products, being leveraged by initiatives like Industrie 4.0. In this context, the data is a valuable asset that can support the smart factory features through the use of Big Data and advanced analytics approaches. In order to address such requirements and related challenges, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) promote the development of more intelligent, adaptable and responsiveness supervisory and control systems capable to overcome the inherent complexity and dynamics of industrial environments. In this context, this work presents an agent-based industrial CPS, where agents are endowed with data analysis capabilities for distributed, collaborative and adaptive process supervision and control. Additionally, to address the different industrial levels’ requirements, this work combines two main data analysis scopes: at operational level, applying distributed data stream analysis for rapid response monitoring and control, and at supervisory level, applying big data analysis for decision-making, planning and optimization. Some experiments have been performed in the context of an electric micro grid where agents were able to perform distributed data analysis to predict the renewable energy production.

Jonas Queiroz, Paulo Leitão, Eugénio Oliveira

Gap Analysis on Research and Innovation for Cyber-Physical Systems in Manufacturing

In defining the Roadmap of the Research Priorities for adoption of CPS in manufacturing industry, it is crucial to identify the key elements preventing a fast and smooth transition from the current status to the desired one. In such complex environments characterized by many industrial sectors and processes, external factors and social/economical influences, it is important to address only the main issues to achieve the result. This paper is aiming to illustrate the results of the Gap Analysis activities carried out in the sCorPiuS (http://scorpius-project.eu/) project.

Anna De Carolis, Giacomo Tavola, Marco Taisch

Redundant and Decentralised Directory Facilitator for Resilient Plug and Produce Cyber Physical Production Systems

Cyber Physical Production Systems (CPSS) built on the concept of “Plug-and-Produce” aim at delivering truly agile production systems. These systems are modular by nature and can be adapted based on changing requirements. One of the challenges in this domain is how to store and propagate information within CPPS. In this paper, a Redundant and Decentralised Directory Facilitator will be introduced to provide the capability to store and broadcast the existing system assembly capabilities. Additionally, this solution will provide redundancy and delocalization of the assembly capabilities information. The model used is described, as well as interactions, behaviours and deployment strategies. Finally a validation scenario is presented and conclusions are discussed.

Flávio Páscoa, Ivo Pereira, Pedro Ferreira, Niels Lohse

Reconfigurable and Self-organized Multi-agent Systems for Industry and Service

Frontmatter

A Self-organisation Model for Mobile Robots in Large Structure Assembly Using Multi-agent Systems

Mobile, self-organising robots are seen to be a possible solution to overcome the current limitations of fixed, dedicated automation systems particularly in the area of large structure assembly. Two of the key challenges for traditional dedicated automation systems in large structure assembly are considered to be the transportation of products and the adaptation of manufacturing processes to changes in requirements. In order to make dynamic, self-organising systems a reality, several challenges in the process dynamics and logistical control need to be solved. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Agent System (MAS) approach to self-organise mobile robots in large structure assembly. The model is based on fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling and uses a blackboard agent as a central information source and to facilitate more common goal directed distributed negotiation and decision making between agents representing the different needs of products and available mobile resources (robots).

Spartak Ljasenko, Niels Lohse, Laura Justham, Ivo Pereira, Michael Jackson

Specifying Self-organising Logistics System: Openness, Intelligence, and Decentralised Control

This paper contributes to the development of a novel paradigm in logistics, i.e. self-organising logistics system (SoLS). A SoLS can be considered as a logistics system that can function without significant intervention of human and without central control by software. It is functioning based on contextual local interactions. By such definition, SoLS could be a powerful solution to manage nowadays logistics that is much larger and complex than ever before. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and in-depth discussion to specify expected advantages and functionalities of SoLS, supported by some recent emerging concepts and technologies. The paper also attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the future work.

Shenle Pan, Damien Trentesaux, Yves Sallez

A Generic Reconfigurable and Pluggable Material Handling System Based on Genetic Algorithm

With the increasing customization of products there was a need to create new manufacturing systems that were able to satisfy these needs of the market. The Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) emerges as a more recent approach allowing the reconfiguration of the line and all the manufacturing systems. The balancing line is a common problem in the system reconfiguration but may not be enough, being also important to reconfigure the material handling system itself. Genetic Algorithms (GA) are one of the most known and used alternatives in optimization problems being widely used in shortest path problems like the travelling salesman. In this paper a solution that allows reconfiguring an agent based material handling system using a genetic algorithm is presented.

Andre Dionisio Rocha, Pedro Caetano, Jose Barata Oliveira

Smart Condition Based Maintenance (S-CBM) for a Fleet of Mobile Entities

In a highly competitive market, the dynamic maintenance of mobile entities in the field of transportation systems is a major research field, in which maintainability, availability, maintenance charging and optimization are vital. Based on the ISO 13374 standard and previous research works, this article proposes a hybrid cooperative architecture for the monitoring of mobile entities. This architecture increases on-board diagnostic capabilities and optimizes the overall maintenance of a fleet of mobile entities.

Adoum Fadil, Joffrey Clarhaut, Guillaume Branger, Damien Trentesaux

Sustainability Issues in Intelligent Manufacturing Systems

Frontmatter

Emerging Key Requirements for Future Energy-Aware Production Scheduling Systems: A Multi-agent and Holonic Perspective

The aim of this paper is to study a set of emerging key-enabling requirements for the design of multi-agent or holonic manufacturing systems dealing with the energy aware scheduling of future production systems. These requirements are organized according to three different views, namely informational, organizational and lifecycle views. It is shown that these emerging key-enabling requirements are not sufficiently addressed by the research literature. An illustrative futuristic example of a system complying with these requirements is provided. From this example, new research opportunities and issues can be easily found.

Damien Trentesaux, Adriana Giret, Flavio Tonelli, Petr Skobelev

Multi-agent Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability Analysis and Optimization

Manufacturing sustainability is related to complex adaptive systems crossing different layers; sustainability issues, and their potential resolutions, are transversal to supply and shop-floor levels, often including interaction between them; in addition, multiple actors across the supply chain interact displaying non-linear and non-rational behaviours characterized by feedbacks and time lags. This complexity is nowadays addressed with classical simulation approaches such as System Dynamics (SD), Dynamic Systems (DS) at very high and aggregate level, or Discrete Event Simulation (DES) at very low and disaggregated level. Agent Based Modelling (ABM) approach may potentially address such issues in a more effective way because it exploits the strengths of both aggregated and disaggregated models, while minimizing the drawbacks. The purpose of this paper is to present a self-developed multi-agent based framework as a basis for sustainable manufacturing modelling, simulation and analysis. A literature review on agent based modelling applied to sustainable manufacturing issues is reported to justify choices adopted in the developed tool. Then an illustrative case of a semi-automated food production line is described with the aim of evaluating the self-developed framework through some sustainability and productivity KPIs, and showing easiness and adaptability. The complete agent based simulator and the interaction sequence are reported and validated by an experimental campaign.

Flavio Tonelli, Massimo Paolucci, Melissa Demartini, Davide Anghinolfi

Data Mining of Energy Consumption in Manufacturing Environment

Markets and consequently manufacturing companies are facing an unprecedented challenge. The constant markets demand of more and more customized and personalized products combined with the recent evolution of information technologies, brought to the manufacturing world the integration of new solutions previously unimaginable in a production environment. Hence, in the last years manufacturing systems were changing and nowadays each component present in the shop floor generates a huge amount of data that is usually not used. In this paper the authors present a framework capable to deal with all this data generated from a production cell in the automotive industry and reduce the energy consumption. Firstly, it is described how the information is extracted and how the data clustering is done, then the data mining process and management are presented, together with the obtained results.

Andre Dionisio Rocha, João Aires Tapadinhas, Luis Flores, Jose Barata Oliveira

Cybersecurity and Resilience Modelling for Software-Defined Networks-Based Manufacturing Applications

In addition to productivity and quality output, for many years, manufacturing systems were also designed with reliability and safety requirements in mind. In the recent decade or so, that approach seems not to be adequate anymore. The current manufacturing global operations ask for more stringent requirements than ever before, which include privacy and security of transactions, among others. Manufacturing control is not new, but the use of cloud environments to integrate distributed manufacturing facilities and entirely control the production processes across those facilities is an active research area denoted in terms such as: virtual factory, cloud manufacturing, Industry 4.0, and more recently, software-defined networking-based manufacturing. Software-defined networking is a relatively new networking architecture that decouples the network data and control mechanisms and assigns the entire data control to a logically centralized control plane that can be software-programmed based on specific application needs. From the security point of view, this translates in the fact that anyone with access to the controllers that run the network control software could potentially control the entire network. This paper proposes an integrated modelling environment that addresses the manufacturing system assurance through cybersecurity and resilience mechanisms for software-defined networks-based (SDN-based) manufacturing applications. First, the paper presents the proposed combined cybersecurity-resilience ontology to be used in the requirements capture of the manufacturing network design stages. Then, the paper presents the framework for SDN-based cybersecurity-resilience mechanisms for manufacturing applications, and ends with a future research section concerning the proposed cybersecurity-resilience modelling environment.

Radu F. Babiceanu, Remzi Seker

Holonic and Multi-agent System Design for Industry and Service

Frontmatter

Formal Specification of a Self-sustainable Holonic System for Smart Electrical Micro-grids

Stand-alone micro-grids have emerged within the smart grids field, facing important challenges related to their proper and efficient operation. An example is the self-sustainability when the micro-grid is disconnected from the main utility, e.g., due to a failure in the main utility or due to geographical situations, which requires the efficient control of energy demand and production. This paper describes the formal specification of a holonic system architecture that is able to perform the automation control functions in electrical stand-alone micro-grids, particularly aiming to improve their self-sustainability. The system aims at optimizing the power flow among the different electrical players, both producers and consumers, to keep the micro-grid operating even under adverse situations. The behaviour of each individual holon and their coordination patterns were modelled, analysed and validated using the Petri net formalism, allowing the complete verification of the system correctness during the design phase.

Adriano Ferreira, Paulo Leitão, José Barata Oliveira

Erlang-Based Holonic Controller for a Modular Conveyor System

Holonic systems have been a popular approach to face the challenges of the modern manufacturing environment. Holonic control implementations have predominantly made use of the Java Agent DEvelopment framework (JADE). This paper presents, as an alternative, a case study implementation based on Erlang. Erlang is a functional programming language with strong scalability, concurrency and fault-tolerance characteristics, which prove to be beneficial when applied to the manufacturing control context. The case study used in this paper is the holonic control of a modular conveyor system; this implementation was chosen to demonstrate the advantages that Erlang can offer as implementation language for holonic systems.

Karel Kruger, Anton Basson

On Rescheduling in Holonic Manufacturing Systems

This paper treats a topical issue for present manufacturing systems, which is the needed adaptability when manufacturing orders are received in an unpredictable way. To face such cases, a rescheduling mechanism is necessary and such a possibility is investigated for a holonic system that materializes its coordination through a combination between the Contract Net Protocol and Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The proposed method is investigated for a case study, by doing simulation experiments with the system coloured Petri net model. The results are analysed for the cases when the new command received during execution is more or less important than the ongoing ones.

Carlos Pascal, Doru Pănescu

Customisation in Manufacturing: The Use of 3D Printing

An increasing demand to provide customised products creates challenges for manufacturing organisations. This poses a need to understand the characteristics required for manufacturing systems to handle customisation. In this study, 3D printing technology is assessed as an enabler for customisation. Additionally, the requirements of manufacturing systems with respect to configuration and control co-ordination are explored. A demonstrator is implemented to integrate 3D printing with conventional manufacturing, using an agent based distributed control system that co-ordinates the customisation of products and the order management.

Rengarajan Srinivasan, Vaggelis Giannikas, Duncan McFarlane, Mudassar Ahmed

Analysing the Impact of Rescheduling Time in Hybrid Manufacturing Control

Hybrid manufacturing control architectures merge the benefits of hierarchical and heterarchical approaches. Disturbances can be handled at upper or lower decision levels, depending on the type of disturbance, its impact and the time the control system has to react. This paper focuses particularly on a disturbance handling mechanism at upper decision levels using a rescheduling manufacturing method. Such rescheduling is more complex that the offline scheduling since the control system must take into account the current system status, obtain a satisfactory performance under the new conditions, and also come up with a new schedule in a restricted amount of time. Then, this paper proposes a simple and generic rescheduling method which, based on the satisfying principle, analyses the trade-off between the rescheduling time and the performance achieved after a perturbation. The proposed approach is validated on a simulation model of a realistic assembly cell and results demonstrate that adaptation of the rescheduling time might be beneficial in terms of overall performance and reactivity.

Jose-Fernando Jimenez, Gabriel Zambrano-Rey, Abdelghani Bekrar, Damien Trentesaux, Paulo Leitão

Big Data Analysis to Ease Interconnectivity in Industry 4.0—A Smart Factory Perspective

Thriving and challenging market trends led to changes in the manufacturing industry. Production lines that need to adapt to customisable products on the fly emerged. By applying communication and sensors to the shop-floor, along with Industry 4.0 principles, this became a possibility. The growing amount of sensors led to an exponential boom of the amount of data available, creating the concept of Smart Factory. By applying Big Data Analysis to this data, it may be possible to optimise Smart Factories. There are technologies capable of doing this, even though only some are capable of guaranteeing Smart Factory requirements, such as real-time. A study of these technologies, based on SME’s experts’ opinion, is hereby presented to assess the most suitable ones to analyse Big Data in a Smart Factory environment.

Pedro Lima-Monteiro, Mafalda Parreira-Rocha, André Dionisio Rocha, Jose Barata Oliveira

Should Intelligent Manufacturing Systems be Dependable and Safe?

Frontmatter

Application of Measurement-Based AHP to Product-Driven System Control

This paper presents an application of the measurements-based AHP to define a two-stage algorithm for product-driven systems control, in case of an unexpected event. This algorithm is made of two stages: the first one aims at defining which kind of strategy the product should adopt (wait¸ react by itself or switch back to centralized mode) while the second one helps to choose the most appropriate resource able to fulfil the product requirements. The methodology is detailed on a simple case study.

William Derigent, Alexandre Voisin, André Thomas, Sylvain Kubler, Jérémy Robert

Product Driven Systems Facing Unexpected Perturbations: How Operational Research Models and Approaches Can Be Useful?

Production planning and control and more generally taking a decision in the context of production systems often consider that input information are known, static and predictable. However, uncertainties on data and perturbations are recorded in the genetic of every production system. For instance, it is impossible to know exactly the level of the demand for a product, the availability of resources, etc. Dealing with this issue raises the question of the ability to take robust decisions against uncertainty (off-line) or the ability to be flexible (on-line). This paper proposes to analyse how Product Driven Systems—as reactive systems against unpredicted perturbations—can be part of operational research solution process against perturbations. Moreover, an overview of models and approaches for dealing with uncertainty in Operational Research is given and a first proposition is made to apply these elements into PDS as decision-making-against-perturbations engines.

Alexis Aubry, Hind Bril, André Thomas, Mireille Jacomino

Holonic Facility Environment Monitoring and Control for Radiopharmaceutical Agent-Based Production

The paper presents design and implementing considerations for an agent-based environment monitoring and control system dedicated to a radiopharmaceuticals production line. This system is distributed on two layers: a centralized one, responsible for updating the status of the facility’s parameters and the global control strategy for cascade room parameters, and a distributed one that applies the global strategy to local environment control units—Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning units (HVAC). The paper describes the environment parameters and defines the HVAC process models. The facility environment control system is developed in holonic approach, with three basic holons and one expertize holon. An implementing solution and integration of the environment control system with the radiopharmaceutical production management system is described. Experimental results and conclusions are finally presented.

Theodor Borangiu, Andrei Silişteanu, Silviu Răileanu, Octavian Morariu

Disruptions Are the Norm: Cyber-Physical Multi-agent Systems for Autonomous Real-Time Resource Management

This paper analyses the new requirements for real time resource management systems based on multi-agent technology. It shows the growing demand for developing autonomous systems which combine resource allocation, scheduling, optimization, communication with users and control in one cycle and can respond rapidly to unexpected events in real time. To solve the problem, cyber-physical multi-agent systems are considered. The paper also analyses the new impact which such systems bring into design of modern systems on the way from smart Internet of Things—to new organizations and ways of user motivation.

Petr Skobelev, Damien Trentesaux

Exploring the Design Space for Myopia-Avoiding Distributed Control Systems Using a Classification Model

Avoiding myopia, suboptimal behaviour, caused by the limited information horizon and computation capacity of agents, has been recognized as a major design challenge for the future academic development and industrial adoption of distributed production control systems. In [3] existing literature from various research streams has been reviewed to classify design decisions that can be made to avoid myopic decision making. In the present paper, this model will be validated by mapping different paradigms of distributed control onto it. Through this exercise, an initial validation of the proposed classification model can be attained and a starting point for a classification of existing distributed production control approaches based on design features is provided. This will help designers of distributed architectures in production control to better understand their design space, take deliberate steps towards the avoidance of myopic behaviour, and identify unexplored areas within the design space.

Tianyi Wang, Henning Blunck, Julia Bendul

Service-Oriented Management and Control of Manufacturing Systems

Frontmatter

Dynamic Service Reconfiguration with Multi-agent Systems

Most modern manufacturing systems rely on constantly seeking new solutions to better fulfil their manufacturing objectives. As reported in today’s manufacturing literature, dynamic service reconfiguration is one solution that permits to endorse continuous service reconfiguration, flexibility and evolvable systems. In spite of the current research efforts, real reconfiguration solutions are still lacking automated tools that support dynamic and runtime reconfigurations by discovering new adaptation needs and opportunities and, thus, explore possible actions leading to new system configurations. To overcome these issues, it is essential to provide solutions that answer to the “when” and “what” to reconfigure questions. Most of the service changes triggers rely on reactive events, where decisions come from a centralized decision-maker and are performed manually. Based on these facts a service-oriented multi-agent systems architecture is described aiming at actively promoting service reconfiguration (e.g., improvement of the service’s properties and/or update the services’ catalogue) to cope with the unexpected and unpredictable condition changes. This paper describes the processes that decide which service reconfiguration should be applied to each circumstance. The developed prototype for a flexible manufacturing system case study allowed verifying the feasibility of the proposed dynamic service reconfiguration solution in different scenarios.

Nelson Rodrigues, Paulo Leitão, Eugénio Oliveira

Caregivers Routing Problem in Home Health Care: Literature Review

In France, Hospital-at-Home Services (HHS) providers that employ their caregivers have to define the assignment of patients to caregivers and the planning of the caregivers’ routes. In the literature, different approaches are proposed to deal with both these problems. Our aim in this paper is to present a literature review of such researches. The target is to show how operational research approaches and Multi-agent based methods can be combined and generate a “win-win” relationship between both approaches to solve HHS resources management in operational level.

Eric Marcon, Sondes Chaabane, Yves Sallez, Thérèse Bonte

Semantic Model to Perform Pluggability of Heterogeneous Smart Devices into Smart City Environment

Nowadays smart cities are becoming more and more a hot topic in the technological world. Some different approaches emerged and many city departments approved investigation and implementation of the smart city technology in their cities. The implementation of these processes is becoming a landmark for the modern cities. This paper proposes a generic semantic model to easily plug and manage heterogeneous smart devices and areas of cities, in order to integrate all the diverse components that constitute a fully integrated and functional smart city environment. This semantic model can be used in the most diverse city scenarios; to demonstrate it, a specific scenario is presented in this paper, describing the usage of the proposed semantic model to detect new components and share information among the smart components.

Andre Dionisio Rocha, Pedro Fernandes, Catiele Lima, Jose Barata Oliveira

Active Monitoring of a Product: A Way to Solve the “Lack of Information” Issue in the Use Phase

The small firms can be satisfied with their quick reaction to customer requests and their creativity but they meet big issues internally about the products sold. These issues put ahead a lack of information when the product is out of the SME. After an analysis of the origin of the problem, the paper proposes to use the active product concept as a key element to solve the problem. A preliminary model helping to support this concept is proposed, and a use case exemplifies how an active product can have an important impact to resolve the problem of “lack of information” in the use phase.

Vivien Basselot, Thierry Berger, Yves Sallez

Engineering and Human Integration in Flexible and Reconfigurable Industrial Systems

Frontmatter

A Description and Analysis Method for Reconfigurable Production Systems Based on Finite State Automaton

New production systems are highly reconfigurable and interact with dynamic industrial environments. Their modelling, simulation and analysis of the operations and evaluation of performances are now much more complex than in the past when system had a static and predefined behaviour. This paper proposes a method to describe and analyse complex production systems, based on utilization of FSA (Finite State Automaton). This approach is enabling better understanding and sharing with stakeholders of how a system works, but it is also a good basis for computer based simulation and control. The interaction with external environments is structured in terms of External Events (inputs) and Trigger Outputs. The analysis of the system state evolution in the time domain provides the possibility to calculate KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) in specific conditions or their evolution. In this paper a simplified language syntax describing the automaton including output generation and triggering of external functions of the production environment is proposed. The approach is implemented and demonstrated in a particular industrial domain: industrial machinery fabrication sector.

Filippo Boschi, Giacomo Tavola, Marco Taisch

Instantiating the PERFoRM System Architecture for Industrial Case Studies

The PERFoRM project, an innovation action promoted within the scope of the EU Horizon 2020 program, advocates the use of an Industrie 4.0 compliant system architecture for the seamless reconfiguration of robots and machinery. The system architecture re-uses the innovative results from previous successful R&D projects on distributed control systems domain, such as SOCRADES, IMC-AESOP, GRACE and IDEAS. This paper, after describing the main pillars of the PERFoRM system architecture, focuses on mapping the system architecture into four industrial use cases aiming to validate the system architecture design before its deployment in the real environments.

Paulo Leitão, José Barbosa, Matthias Foehr, Ambra Calà, Pietro Perlo, Gregorio Iuzzolino, Pierluigi Petrali, Johan Vallhagen, Armando W. Colombo

A Highly Flexible, Distributed Data Analysis Framework for Industry 4.0 Manufacturing Systems

In modern manufacturing, high volumes of data are constantly being generated by the manufacturing processes. However, only a small percentage is actually used in a meaningful way. As part of the H2020 PERFoRM project, which follows the Industry 4.0 vision and targets the seamless reconfiguration of robots and machinery, this paper proposes a framework for the implementation of a highly flexible, pluggable and distributed data acquisition and analysis system, which can be used for both supporting run-time decision making and triggering self-adjustment methods, allowing corrections to be made before failures actually occur, therefore reducing the impact of such events in production.

Ricardo Silva Peres, Andre Dionisio Rocha, Andre Coelho, Jose Barata Oliveira

Reconfigurable Stochastic Petri Nets for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

The use of Petri Nets in the design of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems is an attractive field. Petri Nets allow modelling RMSs in an abstract way and to make specification, refinement, verification and validation of these systems. Moreover, the use of Stochastic Petri Nets allows the designer to catch more indispensable aspects (time and stochastic events) of RMSs, thus the designer can make performance evaluation. In order to study explicitly the reconfigurability, in Petri nets, several works proposed the extension of PN called reconfigurable Petri nets. However, these extensions do not deal yet with stochastic Petri nets. The objective of this paper is to present an extension of Stochastic Petri nets to deal with reconfigurability in manufacturing.

Samir Tigane, Laid Kahloul, Samir Bourekkache

Virtualization and Simulation in Computing-Oriented Industry and Service

Frontmatter

Simulation Platform for Virtual Manufacturing Systems

The paper presents the design of a cloud simulation platform and the associated services and the computing resources for hybrid simulation of Virtual Manufacturing Systems. At the core of the research is the design of a framework defined as Virtual Development Environment (VDE). Associated to VDE is a set of block functions and algorithms defined as software assets, stored in a large repository implemented within an on-line cloud supported library. The platform offers flexibility concerning the continuous testing and updates regarding the algorithms in order to improve the existing ones.

Radu Dobrescu, Daniel Merezeanu

Environment to Simulate Distributed Agent Based Manufacturing Systems

With the constant evolution of markets, new paradigms have emerged. Those new paradigms require solutions more versatile and able to cope with the unexpected changes. The world of manufacturing involves many risks and in order to reduce initial investments it is frequent to use virtual environments like simulators. This document presents a functional architecture of integration between a generic simulator and a multi-agent system, in order to meet the requirements of evolutions in manufacturing and the demand for customized products. One implementation case and results are presented as well.

Andre Dionisio Rocha, Pedro Barroca, Giovanni Dal Maso, Jose Barata Oliveira

An Evolvable and Adaptable Agent Based Smart Grid Management—A Simulation Environment

The liberalization of energy markets and shift towards intensive distributed use has provoked a change in the operating paradigm of electricity distribution networks. The continuity and the reliability of the distribution networks in the context of these new paradigms require structural and functional changes. The concept of Smart Grid allows the adaptation of distribution networks to the new context. This paper proposes an architecture organized to support the power transmission system, which auto management and control. The architecture is a multi-agent one, which uses the flow algorithm for a more efficient routing. Their main aim is stocking the entire electrical grid and distributing the energy effectively and efficiently between the various producers and consumers.

Andre Dionisio Rocha, Miguel Rodrigues, Jose Barata Oliveira

Validation of a Holonic Controller for a Modular Conveyor System Using an Object-Oriented Simulation Framework

This paper presents the use of a commercial, object-oriented simulation framework to facilitate the validation process of a holonic controller. The case study involves a holonic controller for a modular conveyor system. The holonic control is implemented using Erlang and thus exploits the scalability and concurrency benefits it has to offer—the simulation framework and necessary interfacing was then done to accommodate the nature of the implementation. The simulation model interface, incorporating TCP communication and Windows Communication Foundation services, was designed to mirror that of the conveyor hardware to allow for the seamless interchange between emulated and real operation.

Karel Kruger, Anton Basson

Backmatter

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