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S-Cube’s Foundations for the Internet of Services Today’s Internet is standing at a crossroads. The Internet has evolved from a source of information to a critical infrastructure which underpins our lives and economies. The demand for more multimedia content, more interconnected devices, more users, a richer user experience, services available any time and anywhere increases the pressure on existing networks and service platforms. The Internet needs a fundamental rearrangement to be ready to meet future needs. One of the areas of research for the Future Internet is the Internet of S- vices, a vision of the Internet where everything (e. g. , information, software, platforms and infrastructures) is available as a service. Services available on the Internet of Services can be used by anyone (if they are used according to the policies de?ned by the provider) and they can be extended with new services by anyone. Advantages of the Internet of Services include the p- sibility to build upon other people’s e?orts and the little investment needed upfront to develop an application. The risk involved in pursuing new business ideas is diminished, and might lead to more innovative ideas being tried out in practice. It will lead to the appearance of new companies that are able to operate in niche areas, providing services to other companies that will be able to focus on their core business.



The S-Cube Research Vision

This chapter sets the scene and gives the background for S-Cube’s research vision and activities described in the remainder of the book. It does this by describing, in Section 1.1, how the anticipated growth in services and service-based systems that together form the Internet of Services will have a profound effect on business and society. Section 1.2 discusses in more detail some selected, fundamental cross-cutting research challenges and how the cooperation of different research disciplines plays an important role. In Section 1.3 we describe the research framework S-Cube has adopted to assist in unifying research communities and agendas across Europe to meet the challenges faced in realizing the Future Internet.
Mike Papazoglou, Klaus Pohl, Andreas Metzger, Willem-Jan van den Heuvel

Business Process Management

Business process management is one of the core drivers of business innovation and is based on strategic technology and capable of creating and successfully executing end-to-end business processes. The trend will be to move from relatively stable, organization-specific applications to more dynamic, high-value ones where business process interactions and trends are examined closely to understand more accurately an application’s requirements. Such collaborative, complex end-to-end service interactions give rise to the concept of Service Networks (SNs).
This book chapter surveys business process management, concentrating on business transactions, and introduces a business transaction language to realizes a novel business transaction model that enables end-to-end service constellations to behave according to agreed-upon transaction criteria. The objective of the BTL is to provide the environment to build robust and successful mission-critical SBAs, using a fusion of concepts from application integration, transaction-based and business process management technologies.
Francois Hantry, Mike Papazoglou, Willem-Jan van den Heuvel, Rafique Haque, Eoin Whelan, Noel Carroll, Dimka Karastoyanova, Frank Leymann, Christos Nikolaou, Winfried Lammersdorf, Mohand-Said Hacid

Service Composition

In the S-Cube research framework, the Service Composition and Co-ordination (SCC) layer encompasses the functions required for the aggregation of multiple services into a single composite service offering, with the execution of the constituent services in a composition controlled through the Service Infrastructure (SI) layer. The SCC layer manages the control and data flow between the services in a service-based application by, for example, specifying workflow models and using a workflow engine for runtime control of service execution.
This chapter presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in service composition modeling and covers two main areas: service composition models and languages and approaches to the synthesis of service compositions including model-driven, automated, and QoS-aware service composition. The contents of this chapter can be seen as a basis for aligning and improving existing approaches and solutions for service composition and provide directions for future S-Cube research.
George Baryannis, Olha Danylevych, Dimka Karastoyanova, Kyriakos Kritikos, Philipp Leitner, Florian Rosenberg, Branimir Wetzstein

Architectures & Infrastructure

The third of the S-Cube technology layers provides infrastructure capabilities for defining basic communication patterns and interactions involving as well as providing facilities for providing, for example, contextual and qualitative information about a service’s and their client’s environment and performance. Providing these capabilities to other layers allows service developers to use contextual information when building service based systems and provide cross layer and pro-active monitoring and adaptation of services (see research challenges). This chapter provides an overview of service infrastructures for the adaptation, monitoring and management of services which will provide these functions and concludes with a discussion of more detailed research challenges in the context of service infrastructures and their management.
Françoise André, Ivona Brandic, Erwan Daubert, Guillaume Gauvrit, Maurizio Giordano, Gabor Kecskemeti, Attila Kertész, Claudia Di Napoli, Zsolt Nemeth, Jean-Louis Pazat, Harald Psaier, Wolfgang Renz, Jan Sudeikat

Adaptation of Service-Based Systems

The advances in modern technology development and future technology changes dictate new challenges and requirements to the engineering and provision of services and service-based systems (SBS). These services and systems should become drastically more flexible; they should be able to operate and evolve in highly dynamic environments and to adequately react to various changes in these environments. In these settings, adaptability becomes a key feature of services as it provides a way for an application to continuously change itself in order to satisfy new contextual requirements.
Events and conditions triggering application adaptation include: changes in the infrastructural layer of the application due to quality of service changes; changes of the (hybrid) application context and location; changes of the user types, preferences, and constraints that require application customization and personalization as a means to adapt the application behavior to a particular user; changes in the functionalities provided by the component services that requires modifying the way in which services are composed and coordinated; and changes in the way the service is being used and managed by its consumers, which in turn leads to changes in the application requirements.
Raman Kazhamiakin, Salima Benbernou, Luciano Baresi, Pierluigi Plebani, Maike Uhlig, Olivier Barais

Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality

In this chapter the research problems of specifying and negotiating QoS and its corresponding quality documents are analyzed. For this reason, this chapter is separated into two main sections, Section 6.1 and 6.2, with each dedicated to one of the two problems, i.e., QoS specification and negotiation, respectively. Each section has a similar structure: they first introduce the problem and then, in the remaining subsections, review related work. Finally, the chapter ends with Section 6.3, which identifies research gaps and presents potential research challenges in QoS modelling, specification and negotiation.
Salima Benbernou, Ivona Brandic, Cinzia Cappiello, Manuel Carro, Marco Comuzzi, Attila Kertész, Kyriakos Kritikos, Michael Parkin, Barbara Pernici, Pierluigi Plebani

Analytical Quality Assurance

As we described in Chapter 1, Services are often provisioned within short-term, volatile and highly dynamic (business) processes. These processes are designed in an abstract manner and when instantiated can involve service providers not known of during the design time of the service-based application. Thus, different from traditional software systems, service-based applications require the composition and coordination of services within highly distributed environments, cutting across the administrative boundaries of various organizations.
This chapter provides a review of quality contracts, or more generally, those parts of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) which deal with statements about the services quality levels on which the service requestor and the providers have reached an agreement. Aspects of the contracts, such as the identification of parties, legal obligations and penalties for contract violation, are not covered by this chapter.
Andreas Metzger, Salima Benbernou, Manuel Carro, Maha Driss, Gabor Kecskemeti, Raman Kazhamiakin, Kyriakos Krytikos, Andrea Mocci, Elisabetta Di Nitto, Branimir Wetzstein, Fabrizio Silvestri

Service Engineering

Service Engineering and Design (SED) aims at establishing, understanding and managing the entire service lifecycle, including identifying, finding, designing, developing, deploying, evolving, quality assuring, and maintaining services. SED principles, techniques and methods interweave and exploit the mechanisms provided by the S-Cube technology stack with the aim of developing high-quality service-based systems. For example, the SED plane provides specifications to the BPM and SAM layers that can guide the service composition and coordination layer in composing services in a manner that guarantees that the composition behaves as expected.
This chapter focuses on the analysis of existing life cycle approaches for adaptable and evolvable service-based applications with an emphasis on how the lack of a life cycle that can handle adaptation lead to the definition of a reference service life cycle for the development of adaptable service based applications. This chapter also identifies the main concepts, issues, and challenges concerning the various phases of our reference life cycle as they have been identified in the literature.
Vasilios Andrikopoulos, Antonio Bucchiarone, Elisabetta Di Nitto, Raman Kazhamiakin, Stephen Lane, Valentina Mazza, Ita Richardson

Architecture Views Illustrating the Service Automation Aspect of SOA

Earlier in this book, Chapter 8 provided a detailed analysis of service engineering, including a review of service engineering techniques and methodologies. This chapter is closely related to Chapter 8 as shows how such approaches can be used to develop a service, with particular emphasis on the identification of three views (the automation decision view, degree of service automation view and service automation related data view) that structure and ease elicitation and documentation of stakeholders’ concerns. This is carried out through two large case studies to learn the industrial needs in illustrating services deployment and configuration automation. This set of views adds to the more traditional notations like UML, the visual power of attracting the attention of their users to the addressed concerns, and assist them in their work. This is especially crucial in service oriented architecting where service automation is highly demanded.
Qing Gu, Félix Cuadrado, Patricia Lago, Juan C. Duenãs

Correction to: Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality

Correction to: Chapter “Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality” in: M. Papazoglou et al. (Eds.): Service Research Challenges and Solutions for the Future Internet, LNCS 6500, https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-642-17599-2_​6
In the original version of this chapter, the affiliation of Barbara Pernici was incorrectly indicated as “Tilburg University, The Netherlands”. It was corrected to “Politecnico di Milano, Italy”.
Salima Benbernou, Ivona Brandic, Cinzia Cappiello, Manuel Carro, Marco Comuzzi, Attila Kertész, Kyriakos Kritikos, Michael Parkin, Barbara Pernici, Pierluigi Plebani
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