Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
It should not be a surprise in the near future to encounter either a personal or a professional service robot in our homes and/or our work places: according to the International Federation for Robots, there will be approx 35 million service robots at work by 2018. Given that individuals will interact and even cooperate with these service robots, their design and development demand ethical attention. With this in mind I suggest the use of an approach for incorporating ethics into the design process of robots known as Care Centered Value Sensitive Design (CCVSD). Although this approach was originally and intentionally designed for the healthcare domain, the aim of this paper is to present a preliminary study of how personal and professional service robots might also be evaluated using the CCVSD approach. The normative foundations for CCVSD come from its reliance on the care ethics tradition and in particular the use of care practices for: (1) structuring the analysis and, (2) determining the values of ethical import. To apply CCVSD outside of healthcare one must show that the robot has been integrated into a care practice. Accordingly, the practice into which the robot is to be used must be assessed and shown to meet the conditions of a care practice. By investigating the foundations of the approach I hope to show why it may be applicable for service robots and further to give examples of current robot prototypes that can and cannot be evaluated using CCVSD.
Allen, C., & Wallach, W. (2011). Moral machines: contradition in terms of abdication of human responsibility? In P. Lin, K. Abney, & G. A. Bekey (Eds.), Robot ethics: The ethical and social implications of robotics (pp. 55–68). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Asaro, P. (2006). What should we want from a robot ethic? International Review of Information Ethics, 6, 8–16.
Asaro, P. (2011). A body to kick, but still no soul to damn: Legal perspectives on robotics. In P. Lin, K. Abney, & G. A. Bekey (Eds.), Robot ethics: The ethical and social implications of robotics (pp. 169–186). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Calo, R. (2011). Robots and Privacy. In P. Lin, K. Abney, & G. A. Bekey (Eds.), Robot ethics: The ethical and social implications of robotics (pp. 187–202). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Capurro, R. (2009). Ethics and robotics. In R. Capurro & M. Nagenborg (Eds.), Ethics and robotics (pp. 117–123). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Denning, T., Matuszek, C., Koscher, K., Smith, J. R., & Kohno, T. (2009). A spotlight on security and privacy risks with future household robots: attacks and lessons. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on ubiquitous computing (pp. 105–114). New York: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1620545.1620564.
Driessen, C., & Heutinck, L. (2015). Cows desiring to be milked? Milking robots and the co-evolution of ethics and technology on Dutch dairy farms. Agriculture and Human Values, 32(1), 3–20. CrossRef
Engelberger, J. F. (1989). Robotics in service. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRef
Evert, F. K., et al. (2006). A mobile field robot with vision-based detection of volunteer potato plants in a corn crop. Weed Technology, 20(4), 853–861. CrossRef
Friedman, B., Hendry, D., Huldtgren, A., Jonker, C., van den Hoven, J., & van Wynsberghe, A. (2015). Charting the next decade for value sensitive design. Aarhus Series on Human Centered Computing, 1(1), 4. doi: 10.7146/aahcc.v1i1.21619.
Friedman, B., & Kahn, P. (2003). Human values, ethics, and design. In J. Jacko & A. Sears (Eds.), The human-computer interaction handbook (pp. 1177–1201). Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=772072.772147.
Friedman, B., Kahn, P., & Borning, A. (2002). Value sensitive design: Theory and methods (pp. 2–12). University of Washington technical report.
Friedman, B., Kahn, P., & Hagman, J. (2003). Hardware Companions?: What Online AIBO discussion forums reveal about the human-robotic relationship. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 273–280). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/642611.642660.
Lin, P., Abney, K., & Bekey, G. A. (2011). Robot ethics: The ethical and social implications of robotics. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Lokhorst, G.-J., & van den Hoven, J. (2011). Responsibility for Military Robots. In P. Lin, K. Abney, & G. A. Bekey (Eds.), Robot ethics: The ethical and social implications of robotics (pp. 145–155). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Manders-Huits, N. (2011). What values in design? The challenge of incorporating moral values into design. Science and Engineering Ethics, 17(2), 271–287. CrossRef
Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Mechanic masterchef: Robots cook dumplings, noodles and wait tables at restaurant in China. (2013, Jan 13). Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2261767/Robot-Restaurant-Robots-cook-food-wait-tables-Harbin.html.
Mol, A., Moser, I., & Pols, J. (2010). Care in practice: On tinkering in clinics, homes and farms. Bielefeld; Piscataway, NJ: Transcript; Distributed in North America by Transaction Publishers.
News, F. (2014, Dec 4). This restaurant replaced humans with robot waiters. New York Post. Retrieved from http://nypost.com/2014/12/04/this-restaurant-replaced-waiters-with-robots/.
Noddings, N. (2002). Educating moral people: A caring alternative to character education. Teachers College Press, P.O. Box 20, Williston, VT 05495-0020 (paperback: ISBN-0-8077-4168-X, $21.95; cloth: ISBN-0-8077-4169-8, $48). Tel: 800-575-6566 (Toll Free); Fax: 802-864-7626; Web site: http://www.tcpress.com/index.html. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED468125.
Robovie II—the personal robotic shopper. (2009, December 29). Retrieved from http://www.gizmag.com/robovie-ii-robotic-shopping-assistant/13664/.
Sharkey, A. (2016). Should we welcome robot teachers? Ethics and Information Technology, 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10676-016-9387-z.
Sharkey, A., & Sharkey, N. (2012). Granny and the robots: Ethical issues in robot care for the elderly. Ethics and Information Technology, 14(1), 27–40. CrossRef
Spiekermann, S. (2015). Ethical IT Innovation: A value-based system design approach. Boca Raton: CRC Press. CrossRef
Sullins, J. (2011). In M. Anderson & S. L. Anderson (Eds.), Machine ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tronto, J. C. (1993). Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care. Abingdon: Psychology Press.
Vallor, S. (2011). Carebots and caregivers: Sustaining the ethical ideal of care in the twenty-first century. Philosophy and Technology, 24(3), 251–268. CrossRef
van Wynsberghe, A. (2015). Healthcare robots: Ethics, design and implementation. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Vanlaere, L., & Gastmans, C. (2011). A personalist approach to care ethics. Nursing Ethics, 18(2), 161–173. CrossRef
Veruggio, G., & Operto, F. (2006). Roboethics: A bottom-up interdisciplinary discourse in the field of applied ethics in robotics. International Review of Information Ethics, 6, 2–8.
Wallach, W. (2010). Robot minds and human ethics: The need for a comprehensive model of moral decision making. Ethics and Information Technology, 12(3), 243–250. CrossRef
Wallach, W., & Allen, C. (2008). Moral Machines: Teaching robots right from wrong. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Service robots, care ethics, and design
A. van Wynsberghe
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA