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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Serviceology for Services, held in Osaka, Japan, in March 2020.

The 16 full papers and 3 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The papers are organized around the following topics: hospitality management; service innovation and employee engagement; service marketing and consumer behavior; customer experience and service design; service engineering and implementation.



Hospitality Management


Cognitive Competencies of Front-Line Employees in the Hospitality Industry: The Concept of “Serving not to Serve”

This paper focuses on the cognitive competencies enabling front-line employees to grasp context, which previous has not taken into account. To this end, we developed two studies. Study 1 identifies the key factors and models the cognition during service based on interview data from flight attendants. Interview data was analyzed by Grounded Theory Approach. In study 2, the cognition of 155 flight attendants was obtained and features representing cognitive competency were quantitatively identified. Our findings propose the hospitality concept of “serving not to serve” from a cognitive perspective, for which risk perception and thoughtfulness are important cognitive competencies.
Ryo Fukushima, Bach Quang Ho, Tatsunori Hara, Jun Ota, Rena Kawada, Narito Arimitsu

Exploring the Impact of Managerial Responses to Online Reviews in the Sharing Economy: A Case of Accommodation Sharing Service

Strategies to respond to online reviews have been discussed in many previous studies. However, researchers rarely pay attention to the managerial response in the sharing economy context. With sampling from the accommodation sharing service, two studies are conducted to investigate the impact of responses to online reviews. The results show that B&B’s responses to online reviews positively affect its popularity ranking, volumes of online reviews and helpfulness votes. When addressing consumer complaints, response quality, which refers to response length and empathy, is significantly related to the helpfulness votes of a review. This research also explores the interaction between response and review qualities. Results indicate that response length synergistically contributes to the consumer’s perceived helpfulness with review length and consumer-provided photos whereas response empathy has no interactive effects with review length but works well with review photos. Several theoretical and practical implications are generated on the basis of the research findings.
Wenlong Liu, Xiucheng Fan

“Omotenashi” Must Comprise Hospitality and Service

The Importance of a Clinical Approach to Practice and Science in the Service Industry
The divergence of “scientific knowledge” and “practical knowledge” is suppressing productivity in the service industry. This is because science is lacking in the perspective viability that is demanded by practice. A concept of service must be created through a “clinical” approach done as fieldwork, with both science and practice using common terminology. By clinically redefining the three keywords of the service industry, “omotenashi,” “hospitality,” and “service,” this paper elucidates the correlation between productivity and these concepts in order to bring science and practice closer together. The redefinition is, specifically, that “Hospitality” refers to the development characteristics that arise to meet the complex needs of customers, while “Service” refers to the accumulation of “hospitality” knowledge, as filtered and standardized by businesses. Additionally, “Omotenashi” refers to the added value of the experience that is expected by customers, and is a “story” that is created from a combination of “Hospitality” and “Service.” What contribution can a redefinition of these three concepts make to productivity? The contribution to be made is toward an enhancement of productivity, made possible by a research approach that is both scientific and practical, and that incorporates diverse hypotheses in a manner that has been hitherto difficult to accomplish; this is to be achieved by clarifying the interrelation between the concepts.
Tetsuo Kuboyama

Analysis of Service Staff’s Observation on a Customer

A Case Study of Hotel Service in Japan
Personalized services are required for high customer satisfaction and depends on front-line employees. Superior service staff sometimes notice what general staff can’t, have a better understanding of how to observe customers and provide excellent service according to the situation. In this study, we investigate how staffs observe customers, and in turn, use this information for human resource development. Through this investigation, we gather data on the staff’s gaze point, and then understand their thinking process in response to what they saw. The gaze points are categorized into 8 items. What the staff thought varied even with the same gaze points. From the results of the analysis, we propose a model of the staff’s observation levels. Using this model, service staff can be trained to provide better customer service.
Satoshi Shimada, Eiko Hoshiyama

Service Innovation and Employee Engagement


Models for Designing Excellent Service Through Co-creation Environment

Design approaches and methods that are currently widely used in practice target better customer satisfaction, without focusing on customer delight. Customer delight is essential to creating differentiated or better customer experiences. While “service excellence” as an organization’s capability to achieve customer delight has standards, such as CEN/TS 16880, a standard method for designing “excellent service” has not yet been developed. This paper attempts to provide a foundation for what excellent service is toward a new standardization of designing excellent service. The co-creation aspect in excellent service is emphasized in this paper to achieve continuous customer delight. A structured model of excellent service and the concept of a co-creation environment are described. “Engaged customers and employees” and an “ecosystem of data collection and utilization” are sub elements to enhance the effectiveness of a co-creation environment, which is modeled and elaborated as a leverage mechanism to differentiate excellent service from basic service.
Tatsunori Hara, Satoko Tsuru, Seiichi Yasui

A Proposal for the Work Engagement Development Canvas Contributing to the Development of Work Engagement

Employee engagement is positively and significantly related to their productivity, creativity, innovativeness, customer service as well as in-role and extra-role behaviors. The purpose of this study is to propose the Work Engagement Develop Canvas (WEDC), which aims to enhance employee work engagement. The evaluation method of this study is to check outputs where participants described the WEDC as well as to collect two types of questionnaires: A Pre-implementation questionnaire and a post-implementation questionnaire. Additionally, the evaluation is carried out by (1) Checking the output (2) Paired t-test, and (3) Open Coding. The novelty of this study is to focus on enhancing work engagement through the visualization of employees’ own thoughts.
Ami Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Hirotaka Fujino, Seiko Shirasaka

R&D Staff Perception Leading to Product Innovation: Case Study on Carbohydrate-Free Saké

This paper examines the development process of carbohydrate-free saké, namely, Gekkeikan zero carbohydrate saké, as a case study in order to help enhance the success rate of innovation by enabling readers to understand the pattern of innovation for its efficient management in the development process. The concept of effectuation was applied to this case and explained using activity theory. Here we report that, to inspire innovation in product development, organizations should develop prototypes of products containing technology seeds based on the intrinsic motivation of R&D staff and should further begin small test marketing without hesitation from fear of failure.
Kengo Matsumura, Satoshi Shimada, Yoshinori Hara

Problem Structure for Employee Well-Being in the Workplace

Personal and Organizational Well-Being
This study proposes causal loop diagrams to identify factors that inhibit employee well-being on the basis of the problem structure in a Japanese workplace. The well-being and productivity of Japanese employees is low. Thus, human resource department needs to understand the organizational problem structure to increase employee well-being. We identify it by designing causal loop diagrams through workshops for two divisions. As the results, we identify a framework of employee well-being in which there is a trade-off between concentration and communication based on health. We also obtain the different problem structure and determine the problems of each division. Our findings contribute to practical knowledge of serviceology by identifying a framework of employee well-being.
Kei Shibuya, Makiko Yoshida, Bach Q. Ho

Service Marketing and Consumer Behavior


Differences in Customer Delight Rating Linked to Customer Actions in Japanese and Foreign Residents Using Restaurant Services in Japan

Customer satisfaction is seen as an important perspective that affects customer loyalty. But it is difficult to analyze each customer’s evaluation reason in a simple manner. In this research, a web questionnaire system is applied to handle this issue, allowing a respondent who is the customer to describe their actions in the service experience and to evaluate it. Customer delight in the use of restaurant services by Japanese and foreign residents in Japan is selected to validate hypotheses related to the targeted issues. And then, the data acquisition and analysis are conducted. The results indicate that there are differences in customer actions related to customer delight based on the comparison. 40% of the factors that impressed Japanese customers in restaurant service were the taste and appearance of food. On the other hand, foreign residents have the factors related to taste and appearance, but they are more than satisfied with the provision of services, and there are not many descriptions of evaluation from the perspective of cross-cultural communication. We suggest that a more elaborate customer loyalty design is possible based on customer action by clarifying the impact of customer delight based on this kind of research approach.
Hisashi Masuda

Clarification of the Process of Value Co-creation Marketing - Case of Manufacturing Industry

Since Vargo and Lusch [1] advocated SD logic in 2004, research on considering marketing with the concept of service has been active in recent years. Grönroos [2] advocated service logic from a practical point of view, showing the concept of value co-creation where companies interact directly with customers to create value. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process of how value co-creation marketing should be applied to the manufacturing industry. And that end, we took up an example of an α cafe experience meeting held by Sony Marketing and clarified the actual situation through an interview survey. In the analysis, the 4C approach [3] of Contact, Communication, Co-Creation, and Value-in-Context was used to clarify what kind of marketing is being performed, and the value co-creation process was clarified.
Satoshi Seino

Customer Experience and Service Design


Conceptualization of a Smart Service Platform for Last Mile Logistics

Digitization in logistics bears enormous potential for increased efficiency. Especially, the logistics of the last mile that causes between 13% and 75% of the overall logistics cost of parcel shipment could strongly benefit from digitization and an increased transparency. This transparency and a smart process control can be achieved with the help of a smart service platform. Such a platform connects with sensor, ID, and authentication technology in order to operate approaches, such as crowd logistics and sharing concepts with the goal of enabling an efficient, sustainable and user friendly last mile process. The contribution of this paper is a first conceptualization of the smart service platform for last mile logistics with special regards of the underlying business process management. A design science research approach is applied.
Michael Glöckner, Luise Pufahl, Bogdan Franczyk, Mathias Weske, André Ludwig

Enriching Design Thinking with Data Science: Using the Taiwan Moving Industry as a Case

Design thinking is a problem-solving approach that utilizes many qualitative-based tools to support each step. Those qualitative-based tools adopt a subjective approach to capture insights. Recently, the development of data science allows problem solvers to get deeper insights from objective evidence. The study proposes how data science techniques can be used to enrich design thinking process. The research also empirically demonstrated parts of the proposed approach with the Taiwan moving industry. The results of this study include suggestions and notices on each quantitative approach. The paper provides an enriched step-by-step design thinking method, with understandable guidance, to help design thinkers to improve their product design or service design.
Kai-Lun Yang, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Hui-Mei Hsu

Holistic Measurement Approach of Customer Experiences – Findings from a Japanese New Car Buyer Study

Literature on customer experience management suggests that a seamless integration of touchpoints would create stronger customer experiences, but how to effectively do so is a key point of debate. This paper presents findings from an empirical study that surveyed Japanese car buyers in terms of their perception of touchpoints throughout their customer journey. The study is based on a framework drawing from “fluency” as a way to understand technology integration, in which the authors propose an integrated and holistic approach to measuring challenges that impede the “fluency” of experiences and result in what they call “friction.” Findings of this study show that while the majority of customers report that their car purchase experience was smooth and hassle free, a significant share also report points of resistance that made the customer journey more difficult or fragmented. Furthermore, a correspondence analysis of open-ended questions asking for suggestions to make the experience easier and hassle free demonstrated that each purchase stage is characterized by distinct word combinations, with a significantly high rate of requests to increase online touchpoints and enhancing test drives in the early pre-purchase stage, to facilitate negotiation in the purchase stage, and to increase after-sales contact and support activities in the post-purchase stage.
David Marutschke, Ted Gournelos

Service Ecosystem Design Using Social Modeling to Incorporate Customers’ Behavioral Logic

The Customer dysfunctional behaviors affect service providers’ workloads. However, few studies on service ecosystem design have investigated how to prevent these behaviors. This study thus proposes a service ecosystem design tool that can analyze how dysfunctional behaviors affect other actors in the service ecosystem. To this end, customers’ behavioral logic is incorporated into social modeling to analyze their dysfunctional behaviors. This study also uses goal-oriented requirement language as design and analysis tools. Then, structural equation modeling is used to analyze the effects of behavioral logics. A case study of a home delivery service demonstrates the applicability of this methodology to analyze the effects of customer behavioral logics on service ecosystem actors.
Masafumi Hamano, Bach Q. Ho, Tatsunori Hara, Jun Ota

The Application of the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to the Value Co-creation Process in Higher Education

Value co-creation is a central topic for service science, but the mechanism of value co-creation remains unclear. This research establishes a framework for value co-creation with the assistance of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT is an interdisciplinary theoretical framework used to understand activities with tools. The proposed framework adds the object of service and resources into the service system, which enables us to see value co-creation. Focus is placed primarily on the micro-level of value co-creation between lecturers and learners in higher education utilizing text analysis of the lecturers. Higher education needs to address the fact that Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) have spread around the world, and the value of traditional classes has become more questionable. Such traditional classes have sought to become more interactive, but how they can do that is unclear. Based on the factor analysis of thirteen classes, we identified lecturers who conducted a formal intervention relying on three factors—“psychological safety,” “direction,” and “low hurdle” in the utterance of the lecturers.
Takashi Tsutsumi, Masaru Unno

Service Engineering and Implementation


Toward Service Process Improvement in Nursing-Care Services

Application of Behavior Measurement
Population aging rates are increasing, not only in Japan but also in many other countries. Nursing-care services, which help to support the aging population, are becoming one of the most important utilities in aging societies, and its demand is increasing year by year. In this study, we considered that the analysis of service processes was important and proposed new methods to encourage service process improvements as well as technologies for sustainable nursing-care services. We quantitatively measured the behaviors of five care workers by using the time and motion study and the movement of all care workers and nurses for two weeks via the indoor positioning system, visualized them as service processes based on the timeline, trajectory and heatmap, and compared the measurement techniques. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the time and motion study and the indoor positioning system for service process analyses were considered. Also, the application of service process measurements in nursing-care services was discussed.
Hiroyasu Miwa, Kentaro Watanabe

Socially-Conscious Service System Design in the Digital Era: Research Agenda

Digital technology is being integrated in various scenes and processes of our industry and society. Meanwhile, there is a growing concern about the rapidly progressing digitalization. Social responsibility in digitalization is becoming a global agenda in the research on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robotics. While various principles and guidelines have been proposed by the international authorities, NGOs and national governments, these principles are still too abstract to provide significant impact to actual technology development and integration processes. Service researchers, especially in the service science and engineering communities, have been interested in development and integration of digital technologies in service systems. Various concepts of technology-embedded or -assisted service system as well as methods for designing and developing them have been proposed. However, research on managing social impacts, including negative effects by using digital technologies, for service system design is still very limited. This study aims at developing a socially-conscious design method for digital technology assisted service system. In this paper, we first introduce the theoretical background of this study. Because digital technologies tend to bring a broad range of impacts to our society, it is important to take diverse values of various stakeholders into consideration. In addition, long-term evolution of service systems induced by digital technologies and the corresponding impacts on stakeholders should be examined. Therefore, we adopt scenario design and value sensitive design (VSD) to better understand the system of interest. Based on these theoretical foundations, we illustrate the research framework for designing digital technology assisted service systems, consisting of three main topics; system modelling, design process and assessment method.
Kentaro Watanabe, Yusuke Kishita, Kaito Tsunetomo, Takeshi Takenaka

Maintenance IoT Project Framework for Extending Effects to All Stakeholders’ Benefit

Asset management is one of the important application areas of new Internet of Things (IoT) technologies such as data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI). However, in many cases, the application area of IoT is limited to only a small part of the maintenance operation, so only a small maintenance improvement is obtained for maintenance companies, and at the same time, IoT sales also remain small for IT companies. Maintenance IoT solutions sometimes fail to be introduced into actual operations even though the technology trial is successfully completed. To avoid such situations, the customer cocreation method has been introduced into maintenance IoT projects. However, the knowledge and interest gaps between maintenance and IoT companies prevent the discussion. In this research, we introduce our maintenance service menu, which contains various ideas for maintenance improvements and connects maintenance improvements and IoT solution sets. We also introduce a new customer cocreation method based on the service menu. The service menu and new cocreation method are expected to realize practical and effective maintenance IoT project organization and cross-selling of solutions to expand both maintenance improvement effects and IoT sales.
Toshiaki Kono, Yui Sugita, Tomoaki Hiruta

Ecosystem Strategies for IoT Service Platform Ecosystems: A Case Study of RFID Linen Tags and the Japanese Linen Supply Market

The importance of Internet of Things (IoT) platforms and services has frequently been emphasized. This study focused on radio frequency identifier (RFID) linen tags and investigated Japanese linen supply markets regarding the application of RFID technology, expected IoT services, and approaches to platform ecosystem evolution. A total of 1,176 questionnaires were sent to Japanese linen supply firms and 136 responses were received. The results identified a promising business area in which the RFID platform provider cultivates an IoT service platform ecosystem in the Japanese linen industry. This has several implications for transportation management and services for hotels, restaurants, medical, and nursing, and firms in these sectors tend to show a high willingness-to-pay and willingness regarding the introduction of RFID. Additionally, since this area is located in the center of the linen firms’ network, the platform provider can extend the ecosystem in several ways. Based on these results and a consideration of eco-systemization based on previous literature, the authors suggest a method for the realization of IoT service platform ecosystems with RFID linen tag technology.
Yuki Inoue, Takami Kasasaku, Ryohei Arai, Takeshi Takenaka


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