This chapter develops the empirical evidence of the Gulf States’ greater role in patterns of global trade and production. It examines how the large-scale economic diversification programmes initiated in the 1990s and 2000s and described in previous chapters have created new integrative linkages with the global economy as the GCC states grew into world-leading centres of production for a variety of industries ranging from petrochemicals and aluminium to cement and the construction industry. Simultaneously, the direction of Gulf hydrocarbons and nonoil trade shifted to the East in response to the Asian economic boom in the 2000s. The result has been the creation of more complex industrial ties with emerging (as well as industrialised) economies, primarily at bilateral levels but also on a multilateral basis as well. These ties have contributed to the shifting patterns of international trade that cumulatively are reshaping the contours of the global economy. Set against this has been the far slower progress on global trade agreements such as the WTO’s Doha Development Round, which remained at an impasse in 2014, more than a decade after its launch in the Qatari capital in 2001.
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- Shifting Patterns of Global Trade
Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
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