Shingle beaches are widely distributed around the world. They are composed of deposits of pebbles lying at or above mean high water. These most often occur as fringing beaches which are subject to periodic displacement or overtopping by high tides and storms. Waves determine the position of the sediment on the beach. Deposits may be reworked in front of the shore or moved in parallel to it by longshore drift, before being thrown up onto the beach by storm waves. Small foreshore ridges are deposited at the limit of high tide and form the fringing beaches which may occur on their own or as precursors to more permanent ridges.
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- Shingle Beaches and Structures
J. Pat Doody
- Springer Netherlands