Periodically repeating processes form a very broad class of natural phenomena. We encountered the symmetries of periodically repeated patterns during the mathematical and crystallographical description of friezes and wallpaper motifs. They are to be found as decorative elements almost everywhere in our environment. When we were at elementary school, we decorated our notebooks with serial designs. It is periodically repeating patterns that decorate the façades of most houses, our fences, railings, and this is how lampposts and rows of trees are laid out. Periodic decorative designs could be found in all periods in all folk decorative arts. They were used as much for decorating personal items and textiles as for decorative products made specifically to be looked at. Their fashion changed from age to age and culture to culture, with their characteristic features making it possible to identify and distinguish ancient Persian designs from Greek ones, or decorative elements of the European classicism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from the
of the twentieth.
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