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Complex systems are found in almost all field of contemporary science and are associated with a wide variety of financial, physical, biological, information and social systems. Complex systems modelling could be addressed by signal based procedures, which are able to learn the complex system dynamics from data provided by sensors, which are installed on the system in order to monitor its physical variables. In this chapter the aim of diagnosis is to detect if the electrical machine is healthy or a change is occurring due to abnormal events and, in addition, the probable causes of the abnormal events. Diagnosis is addressed by developing machine learning procedures in order to classify the probable causes of deviations from system normal events. This chapter presents two Fault Detection and Diagnosis solutions for rotating electrical machines by signal based approaches. The first one uses a current signature analysis technique based on Kernel Density Estimation and Kullback–Liebler divergence. The second one presents a vibration signature analysis technique based on Multi-Scale Principal Component Analysis. Several simulations and experimentations on real electric motors are carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solutions. The results show that the proposed signal based diagnosis procedures are able to detect and diagnose different electric motor faults and defects, improving the reliability of electrical machines. Fault Detection and Diagnosis algorithms could be used not only with the fault diagnosis purpose but also in a Quality Control scenario. In fact, they can be integrated in test benches at the end or in the middle of the production line in order to test the machines quality. When the electric motors reach the test benches, the sensors acquire measurements and the Fault Detection and Diagnosis procedures detect if the motor is healthy or faulty, in this last case further inspections can diagnose the fault.
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