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Alexey Ivanov investigates the application of a silicon anodization process as a three-dimensional structuring technique, where silicon is transformed into porous silicon as a sacrificial layer or directly dissolved in electropolishing regime. The work contains a detailed state of the art, experimental studies and modeling of the process for basic shape controlling techniques. Limitations of the developed FEM model with secondary current distribution are discussed.



Chapter 1. Introduction

In the last decades, miniaturization of sensors and actuators opened new possibilities for applications of these devices in all fields of our lives. In order to fabricate such devices, different microstructuring techniques mostly coming from microelectronics technology are used. However, every technique is limited in choice of materials and achievable geometries, and often requires sophisticated and expensive equipment.
Alexey Ivanov

Chapter 2. State of the art

Electrochemical etching of silicon in fluoride containing electrolytes, also named as anodization process, is a fascinating process which provides material for research for more than half a century. The first report on anodization of silicon (and germanium) was published by Uhlir [78]. Further investigations of silicon anodization were performed ten years later by Memming and Schwandt [79].
Alexey Ivanov

Chapter 3. Experimental, characterization and simulation methods

Preparation of electrolytes was done mostly on the day of experiments or one day before. Before starting experiments, electrolyte was stirred manually to provide good homogeneity. During anodization, no stirring/circulation was applied.
Alexey Ivanov

Chapter 4. Microscale study of anodization process

In order to apply the process of silicon anodization for structuring and develop a model, it was necessary to investigate the process on the microscale and check whether our data match the results from other researchers. In this chapter, dependence of microscale parameters of the anodization process (porosity, dissolution valence, etch rate, and interfacial surface quality) on current density and wafer resistivity for p-type silicon wafers was studied. Additionally, surface quality for p-type silicon samples anodized in low concentrated electrolytes, as well as influence of porous silicon removal process on surface quality, were investigated.
Alexey Ivanov

Chapter 5. Anodization process as a structuring technique

Literature research in sec. 2.6 showed that some separate studies aimed on fabrication of specific structures were performed by different research groups. However, these studies only showed some effects, such as current crowding for insulating frontside masking (for example, Fig. 2.41), without considering complete time evolution of the etch shapes during the process at various conditions. Therefore, in this chapter, for the first time, detailed studies of shape control obtained through localization with basic localization techniques, namely, frontside masking and backside contacts, are presented.
Alexey Ivanov

Chapter 6. General conclusions

In this work, application of silicon anodization process as a threedimensional structuring technique was investigated.
Alexey Ivanov


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