The invention of silicon (Si)-based diodes and especially the Si bipolar transistors by Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain seven decades ago has triggered the era of fast-growing information and computer technologies. As a consequence, the development into microelectronic fabrication technologies has also been extensively investigated and progressed to reduce device size and to increase the integration, as well as to enhance their performance. The growing rate of the state-of-the-art microprocessors has reached above Moore’s law, which states that the number of transistors on a chip doubles roughly every 2 years. This achievement is largely attributed to the advanced micro- and nanofabrication processing .
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