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01.01.2015 | Ausgabe 1/2015

Emission Control Science and Technology 1/2015

Similarities and Differences Between “Traditional” and “Clean” Diesel PM

Zeitschrift:
Emission Control Science and Technology > Ausgabe 1/2015
Autoren:
Chris Ruehl, Jorn D. Herner, Seungju Yoon, John F. Collins, Chandan Misra, Kwangsam Na, William H. Robertson, Subhasis Biswas, M.-C. Oliver Chang, Alberto Ayala
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s40825-014-0002-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

The majority of particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel engines is captured by advanced emission aftertreatment, here defined as the combination of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Some PM is still emitted, however, and because PM from uncontrolled diesel engines is known to be carcinogenic, any changes in diesel PM chemistry with aftertreatment would be of interest. Here, we present PM chemical composition from emissions of a 2010 compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) with original equipment manufacturer aftertreatment collected on bulk filters and impactor stages. Results reported include inorganic ions, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), thermo-optical organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We compare the model year 2010 composition to that emitted by a model year 1998 HDDV without DPF/SCR. We found that diesel PM mass emissions are reduced by one to two orders of magnitude by aftertreatment, but that a carbon-based accumulation mode (∼100 nm), the defining feature of traditional diesel PM, is still present in 2010 compliant HDDVs. Under heavier engine load conditions (high-speed cruise), the 2010 vehicle also emitted a sulfate-rich nucleation mode that, at times, made up the majority of particulate mass. OC and EC size distributions are similar for the two HDDVs, although during cruise, a second OC peak was found in the 2010 nucleation mode. PAH and WSOC data suggest that the OC emitted with aftertreatment is more oxidized and has a smaller relative contribution of unmodified fuel and lube hydrocarbons.

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Zusatzmaterial
Figure S1 The complete laboratory sampling setup. Red boxes indicate measurements that are the focus of this manuscript. (PNG 3007 kb)
40825_2014_2_MOESM1_ESM.png
Figure S2 The speed vs. time trace of the UDDS cycle. (PNG 248 kb)
40825_2014_2_MOESM2_ESM.png
Figure S3 Comparison of the number distributions observed during nucleation for the 2010 truck by the (a) DMS and (b) SMPS instruments. (PNG 965 kb)
40825_2014_2_MOESM3_ESM.png
High Resolution Image (TIFF 6400 kb)
40825_2014_2_MOESM4_ESM.tif
Table S1 (DOCX 14 kb)
40825_2014_2_MOESM5_ESM.docx
Literatur
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