We present several relational frameworks for expressing similarities and preferences in a quantitative way. The main focus is on the occurrence of various types of transitivity in these frameworks. The first framework is that of fuzzy relations; the corresponding notion of transitivity is
a conjunctor. We discuss two approaches to the measurement of similarity of fuzzy sets: a logical approach based on biresidual operators and a cardinal approach based on fuzzy set cardinalities. The second framework is that of reciprocal relations; the corresponding notion of transitivity is cycle-transitivity. It plays a crucial role in the description of different types of transitivity arising in the comparison of random variables in terms of winning probabilities.