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How are the pieces of the terrestrial system (land surface, glaciers, and ice sheets) modeled? Although terrestrial systems are often thought of as just modeling the land and its biology surface, the system also includes two other important components: the cryosphere (ice and snow) that sits on land and the anthroposphere (the role of humans). Plants are critical for modeling the land surface because they help govern the exchange of heat, water and carbon between the soil and the atmosphere. The coupling between plants, soil and atmosphere is discussed, along with the role of glaciers and ice sheets. Some of the major challenges in terrestrial models are discussed. The interaction of human systems and the climate system is also discussed as a framework to think about climate change. A national park in North America is used as an example of modeling effects of climate change on land ecosystems.
Lawrence, D., & Fischer, R. “The Community Land Model Philosophy: Model Development and Science Applications.” iLEAPS and GEWEX newsletter, April 2013, http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/working_groups/Land/ileaps-CLM.pdf.
For a review of many of these basic concepts, see Schimel, D. (2013). Climate and Ecosystems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; or Bonan, G. B. (2008). Ecological Climatology: Concepts and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bender, M. L. (2013). Paleoclimate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Alley, R. B., et al. (2005). “Ice-Sheet and Sea-Level Changes.” Science, 310(5747): 456–460.
Based on land-use data available from the World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.ARBL.ZS, or the CIA World Fact Book, https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook.
For arable land trends over time, see United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics division (FAOSTAT), http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E.
Malhi, Y., et al. (2009). “Exploring the Likelihood and Mechanism of a Climate-Change-Induced Dieback of the Amazon Rainforest.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(49): 20610–20615.
For a detailed background, see Charlson, R. J., Orians, G. H., & Butcher, S. S. (1992). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ed. G. V. Wolfe. New York: Academic Press.
The original treatment of the Budyko bucket model is reviewed in Budyko, M. I. (1974). Climate and Life. New York: Academic Press.
For a review of soil moisture feedbacks, see Seneviratne, S. I., et al. (2010). “Investigating Soil Moisture—Climate Interactions in a Changing Climate: A Review.” Earth-Science Reviews, 99(3–4): 125–161.
An accessible introduction to the carbon cycle is Archer, D. (2010). The Global Carbon Cycle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
An overview of other trace element cycles is found in Jacobson, M., Charlson, R. J., Rodhe, H., & Orians, G. H. (2000). Earth System Science: From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Changes, Vol. 72. New York: Academic Press.
Takahashi, T., et al. (2002). “Global Sea—Air CO 2 Flux Based on Climatological Surface Ocean pCO 2, and Seasonal Biological and Temperature Effects.” Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, The Southern Ocean I: Climatic Changes in the Cycle of Carbon in the Southern Ocean, 49(9–10): 1601–1622. doi: 10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00003-6. For a classic overview of the carbon cycle and sinks, see Siegenthaler, U., & Sarmiento, J. L. (1993). “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Ocean.” Nature, 365(6442): 119–125.
Galloway, James N., et al. (2008). “Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions.” Science, 320(5878): 889–892.
An overview of the role of the cryosphere in climate is contained in Marshall, S. J. (2012). The Cryosphere. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
There is an 800,000-year record from the “Dome C” ice core. Original results are reported in Lüthi, D., et al. (2008). “High-Resolution Carbon Dioxide Concentration Record 650,000–800,000 Years Before Present.” Nature, 453(7193): 379–382.
Van den Broeke, M., et al. (2009). “Partitioning Recent Greenland Mass Loss.” Science, 326(5955): 984–986.
For a summary of the West Antarctic ice sheet, see Oppenheimer, M. (1998). “Global Warming and the Stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.” Nature, 393(6683): 325–332.
Also called the anthrosphere. The term also has a companion for a geological epoch, the Anthrocene. See Crutzen, P. J. (2002). “Geology of Mankind.” Nature, 415(6867): 23.
Data from UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Statistics Division (FAOSTAT), http://faostat3.fao.org/.
An economic system model is another name for a macroeconomic model, a model tool designed to simulate a country or region. Many different types, descriptions, and simple models are available on the web.
Parson, E. A., & Fisher-Vanden, A. K. (1997). “Integrated Assessment Models of Global Climate Change.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 22(1): 589–628.
Details and results of this case study can be found in “Using Climate Change Scenarios to Explore Management at Isle Royale National Park,” http://www.nps.gov/isro/learn/nature/using-climate-change-scenarios-to-explore-mangement-at-isle-royale-national-park.htm.
The possibility that changes in the Arctic might have strong influence on mid-latitudes was proposed by Francis, J. A., & Vavrus, S. J. (2012). “Evidence Linking Arctic Amplification to Extreme Weather in Mid-Latitudes.” Geophysical Research Letters, 39: L06801. doi: 10.1029/2012GL051000. This is an active research area.
- Simulating Terrestrial Systems
Richard B. Rood
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Chapter 7