Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) is rare (< 15 000 mature trees) in Newfoundland and is known from only 22 locations in the central region. Red pine occupies 3 major site types in Newfoundland: 1) red pine on medium-textured sands (RP1), 2) red pine on coarse-textured glacio-fluvial deposits (RP2), and 3) red pine on Folisols over bedrock (RP3). The succession of red pine site types after cutting is from red pine to Kalmia — black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) for RP1, and to Cladonia-Kalmia — black spruce for types RP2 and RP3. Succession after fire is usually to the pre-fire type, but this depends on the severity of the fire.Although occupying a relatively poor site, red pine at 60–70 years reaches heights in excess of 18 m, dbh in excess of 40 cm, and individual tree volumes greater than 1 m3 were recorded in 75 stem-analyzed fire-killed trees. Black spruce on that same site produces less than one-third that volume in 60 years. Merchantable volume of 140–280 m3 ha-1 were recorded i.e., Canada Land Inventory (CLI) forest capability class 5 and class 4 ratings. This raises the CLI rating two capability classes if red pine were occupying these poor quality sites over black spruce. In terms of nutrition, even the best growing red pine are nitrogen (N) deficient as shown by foliar analysis. All natural stands have foliar N concentrations below 1.3% which is the critically low level shown in the literature. Immediately after fire, foliar concentrations reach this level but are usually about 1% or less. Most other nutrients are low but are within the generally reported adequate levels in testing for P, K, Ca and Mg.Fire influences soil nutrient availability as pH increases in the RP1 type. Burning temperature also affects soil pH and the understory vegetation. The RP2 type loses more N in hotter burns on this site type and more N is tied up in these ortstein hardpan soils. The pattern of regeneration following wildfire is related to slope, density, age and species mixture of the stand as well as the thickness and composition of the duff layer.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Site Characteristics, Growth and Nutrition of Natural Red Pine Stands in Newfoundland
B. A. Roberts
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen