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Über dieses Buch

This book reviews the applications, technologies, standards, and other issues related to Smart Cities. The book is divided into broad topical sections including Vision & Reality, Technologies & Standards, Transportation Considerations, and Infrastructure & Environment. In these sections, authors who are experts in their fields present essential aspects of applications, technologies, requirements, and best-practices. In all cases, the authors have direct, substantive experience with the subject and present an important viewpoint driven by industry or governmental interests; the authors have each participated in the development and/or deployment of constituent technologies, standards, and applications, and share unique perspectives on key areas of the Smart City.



Vision & Reality

Chapter 1. Smart Cities: Vision on-the-Ground

When “Smart City” is heard, it is most often interpreted as meaning a city that uses sensors, beacons, data, screens, mobile, and other technology tools. Sometimes it is interpreted to include city use of social media, search engines, browsing, and way-finding. It is usually intended as connoting communities that are prosperous, energy efficient, automated, environmentally friendly, and fun. The phrase is, perhaps, most often spoken by those who imagine, design, build, sell, and delight in digital and similar technologies. When some hear “smart cities,” however, they interpret it also—or instead—to mean equitable, just, safe, rich in work, education, and cultural opportunities, as well as clean, open, and inclusive of traditional and still relevant characterizations of a desirable city. This chapter discusses some of the challenges Austin, Texas believes it faces in retaining and improving its desirability. It is a sample of what Austin’s government, residents, universities, and private sector partners are exploring in design, experimentation, and use of technologies so that Austin will be the kind of cutting-edge Smart City that includes the best of the traditional desirable city.
Ted Lehr

Chapter 2. Funding a Smart City: From Concept to Actuality

Envisioning a Smart City involves creativity and planning; however, the singular most important question in any Smart City design is: “How will it be funded?” Without project capital and secured funding, a Smart City vision will remain exactly that: just a vision. This chapter examines the complex process of identifying, pursuing, and securing funding for a Smart City program, and offers tools and considerations to help advance Smart City concepts to actuality.
Stephen R. Galati

Chapter 3. The System Complexities of Smart Cities and the Systems Approach for Standardization

Smart Cities is a complex systems-of-systems containing subsystems and technologies that have advanced over time. As the needs grow for more sustainable, reliable, and affordable services in smart cities, the system requirements and interoperability needs also grow. Standards are developed to enable and support such technology needs but working with complex systems requires a more systematic and holistic approach. This chapter walks through the evolution of the electric meter and how it has evolved into an advanced, data generating device that is part of a larger system. Then, we examine the role of the standards community and its adaptation to a more systems perspective. The chapter ends in examining the systems life cycle and key factors in evaluating complex systems for the development of standards.
Manyphay Viengkham

Technology & Architecture

Chapter 4. The Smart Grid: Anchor of the Smart City

The power grid is one of the most critical technological achievements of human kind. It delivers energy to the end users and creates a fertile foundation for new services to blossom. In recent years, the grid has undergone tremendous evolution toward the “smart grid.” One of the most important characteristics of the smart grid is the active nature of the consumers. This characteristic parallels the active nature of citizens in a Smart City environment. This chapter presents the smart grid architecture and customer-centric applications that disrupt the existing paradigms of business models and electric services in a Smart City environment.
George Koutitas

Chapter 5. The Internet of Things: Nervous System of the Smart City

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an important functional component of the Smart City. IoT generally refers to a collection of embedded computing, networking, and communications technologies that collectively comprise an autonomous machine-to-machine or device-to-device network. This chapter discusses several aspects of IoT design, including unique challenges, requirements, test methodologies, and standards which affect Smart City deployments.
Yang Zou, Brad Jolly, Ryan Li, Mingyan Wang, Ramandeep Kaur

Chapter 6. The Cloud: A Critical Smart City Asset

This chapter discusses the origins and structure of “the Cloud ” as well as its role in the emerging “smart city” phenomenon. The “Cloud” existed from the moment the Internet was created. The pervasive, global presence of data and computing resources “somewhere out there” in an Internet-based datacenter is the foundation of cloud computing. The worldwide expansion of wireless Internet access now provides immediate storage, retrieval, and processing of information from arbitrary sources. As cities implement “smart” technologies and processes, access to “the Cloud” will enable the creation of distributed, personal, and autonomous services with ramifications far beyond today’s Internet .
Brad Booth

Transportation Considerations


Chapter 7. Transportation Electrification

This chapter will discuss the value proposition for Smart City communities in adopting transportation electrification to include Electric Vehicles. Benefits include supporting positive results for cleaner air, climate change, affordability, energy security, and electric grid resiliency. Specific solutions will be analyzed based on Austin’s utility deployments from the past 5 years and its current transportation electrification roadmap. Project details and lessons learned will be discussed.
Karl Popham

Chapter 8. Smart Transportation Systems

Conventional surface transportation resources, such as vehicles, roads, terminals, and other transportation infrastructure, are aging. Many countries are falling behind in installing new transportation infrastructure in their cities. Thanks to the recent developments in technology and the global connectivity enabled by The Internet, transportation systems are undergoing a profound transformation that will change the way humans and products move around cities. That is, smarter, more autonomous, and safer vehicles that communicate with other vehicles and with the city buildings, traffic signs, and other infrastructure will be the golden standard. It is expected that those cities which use such technology will increase their mobility , boost their economic productivity and reduce their levels of pollution. This new approach to transportation is called Intelligent Transportation Systems, and is the topic of this chapter.
Jesus A. Jimenez

Chapter 9. Reconfigurable Computing for Smart Vehicles

The future of the automobile industry will be defined by the capacity to process large volumes of data originating from a multitude of interfaces in a timely manner. Presently, high-end vehicles have more than 100 electronic control units (ECU) performing multiple functions in parallel such as powertrain, chassis & safety, comfort, and infotainment. The components of this complex system communicate with each other via multiple network interfaces. As the trends toward advanced driver assisted systems (ADAS) and from in-vehicle communication to vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, exponential growth will be seen in the number of electronic control units used in an automobile. This growth will lead to a rise in fast, time-critical, and real-time data processing demand from multiple interfaces such as camera interfaces, sensors, other vehicles, and roadside infrastructure. In the automotive domain, data processing is time-critical and must be reliable. This system will demand high level of parallel, time-critical and fault-tolerant computing. Current multichip or software-based solutions may not be able to satisfy this demand. FPGAs are suitable for such applications as they are programmable and customizable, and can process high volumes of data in parallel on a single chip. Simultaneously, an FPGA can have sophisticated error correction algorithms providing reliability at the hardware level to provide the throughput required for automotive applications.
Vikas Chaudhary

Infrastructure & Environment

Chapter 10. Smart Buildings and Grid Distribution Management

This text is an introduction to two specific applications that apply smart building technology and smart grid distribution to a general campus of buildings. The example deployments are at pilot level for the campus and at a single building level. The applications are targeted at managing and improving the electrical demand and energy efficiency of the locations while minimizing the cost of the electrical energy from the electrical supplier. The application also maximizes renewable and conventional distributed generation and storage at both the building level and at the campus level while minimizing any usage impact to the campus or building operator. As a part of this chapter, the general smart building and campus building applications will be discussed in detail. In addition to the software and hardware applications, the financial cost structure of successfully researching, developing, and deploying production smart building systems using IoT will be covered. The economics must recognize the impacts of utilities venturing into alternative rate structure schemes which could be a movement away from volumetric pricing. The market acceptance of technology is moving into a mature stage and this will need to be included in the business model.
Phil Powell

Chapter 11. Smart City Lighting

Lighting in the Smart City is evolving rapidly. The confluence of technologies and other enabling factors is transforming municipal lighting from passive illumination into an active participant in nighttime cityscapes. Crude bulk light sources are being replaced with energy efficient and highly controllable/configurable light emitting diodes (LEDs) . The efficiency and cost of these new approaches to lighting have already surpassed the best legacy systems, and are enabling a revolution in dynamic, multimodal, and multidimensional lighting solutions for the Smart City.
Chris Boissevain

Chapter 12. Smart Water Solutions for Smart Cities

There are several areas of development that form the framework for evolving Smart City strategies. The concept of “Smart Water Solutions” embodies all these central themes of Smart City initiatives. In addition to power and transportation issues, effective water management is a critical consideration in the success of every Smart City agenda. This chapter examines components of smart water solutions, and provides examples of the use of related technologies in a Smart City environment.
Thomas Dickey

Chapter 13. Technology-Enhanced Infrastructure

The backbone of every city is a system of infrastructure assets. Cities have a responsibility to their citizens to at least maintain, if not improve, the safety, functionality, environmental impact, and economic value of these structures. Sensor-monitoring technologies used in combination with asset management strategies will help cities maintain their infrastructure. Sensors are just one component of a Technology-Enhanced Infrastructure (TEI) system. TEIs also include an array of physical assets; inventory of embedded, attached, and remote sensors; a robust communication and data storage network; and a cohort of asset managers. This chapter examines each component of a TEI system and provides two examples of the use of sensors to monitor infrastructure assets.
Peter John Schemmel, John Joseph Schemmel, Evan Diane Humphries


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