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This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous system of the robot (CNSR) on the state of the environment and system state.

Recent advances in computer science, measuring and computing techniques have stimulated the practical realization of the CNSR, providing a fundamentally new approach to the methods and algorithms of formation of appropriate robot behavior.

Intelligent robots with CNSR occupy a special place among the highly efficient robotic systems with parallel structures and play an important role in modern automated industries, and this timely book is a valuable resource for specialists in the field of robotics and control, as well as for students majoring in “Robots”, “System analysis and management”, and “Automation and control”.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Methods of Designing

Frontmatter

Challenges Related to Development of Central Nervous System of a Robot on the Bases of SEMS Modules

Abstract
Purpose when modern problems of robotics are being settled, the bionic approach, when robots imitate complexity and adaptability of biological systems, is becoming more and more widespread. Smart Electromechanical Systems (SEMS) are used in cyberphysical systems. These systems integrate many functions, namely computing, control, communication and storage of information, monitoring and control over both their parameters and ones of the environment. It is important to bear in mind that the behavior of the system is based on information obtained from the Central Nervous System of a Robot (CNSR) about the state of environment and conditions of system. The purpose of the publication is to describe approaches to the solution of the problem of development of the central nervous system of robots constructed on the basis of SEMS modules. Results the concept of development of the central nervous system of a robot on the basis of SEMS modules is suggested. Practical importance the principles of development of the central nervous system suggested in the article can be used for modeling and decision-making in control systems of smart robots.
Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, I. L. Tarasova, Vugar G. Kurbanov

Unified Logical Analysis in Robots’ CNS Based on N-Tuple Algebra

Abstract
Objective A robot’s behavior in a complex environment is largely determined by the ability to perform complex logical analysis of the current situation. Such analysis uses both deductive and non-deductive methods (defeasible reasoning, hypothesis, abductive conclusion, and so on). The aim of this publication is to describe approaches to mathematical modeling of the unified logical analysis within the central nervous system of a robot taking into account peculiarities of human reasoning where imaginative schemas play a significant role. Results A mathematical model is proposed for a generalized logical analysis on the basis of n-tuple algebra. This model is distinguished with representation of inference as a cognitive image-schematic structure “container”, which mathematically corresponds to the inclusion relation between structures of n-tuple algebra involved in reasoning. Practical significance The proposed methods and algorithms of generalized logical analysis can be used for formation of intelligent robot control systems.
Boris A. Kulik, Alexander Ya. Fridman

SEMS-Based Control in Locally Organized Hierarchical Structures of Robots Collectives

Abstract
Objective Development of brainware to integrate interactions of hierarchical groups of robots, built on the basis of SEMS modules, with the purpose to support making objective compromise strategic and tactical decisions. Results Coordination and planning methods are proposed for hierarchical collectives of such robots within the frame of the situational approach. Sufficient conditions are obtained for coordinability of hierarchical dynamic systems with using local quality criteria gradients and ideas of local organization of reasonable behavior. For groups of robots built in the paradigm of Dynamic Intelligent Systems (DIS), a coordination principle is proposed based on the known principles of interactions prediction. On the basis of the notion of the effective N-attainability, a procedure is developed to directly synthesize plans to control such collectives. Practical significance The proposed methods of coordination and planning will allow efficient usage of available resources in order to provide acceptable results for all (or most) modules having purposeful behavior.
Alexander Ya. Fridman

Behavioral Decisions

Frontmatter

Logical-Mathematical Model of Decision Making in Central Nervous System SEMS

Abstract
Purpose Smart Electromechanical Systems (SEMS) are used in cyberphysical systems and, in particular, in intelligent robots. SEMS are able to integrate functions of calculation, management, communication, storage of information, monitoring, measurement and control of own parameters and parameters of the environment. It is important to consider that the behavior of a system is based on the information about the environment and conditions of the system obtained from the Central Nervous System of a Robot (CNSR). The purpose of the publication is to describe the approaches of adoption of behavioral decisions like a human on the basis of information obtained from CNSR that are constructed on the basis of SEMS modules. Results Deductive, inductive and abductive types of adoption of behavioral decisions in CNSR on the basis of SEMS modules are offered. Practical importance The principles and approaches to decision-making on the basis of information from CNSR suggested in the article can be used to set a strategy and tactics of control over intelligent robots.
Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, I. L. Tarasova, Vugar G. Kurbanov

Behavioral Decisions of a Robot Based on Solving of Systems of Logical Equations

Abstract
Purpose: The expedient behavior of a robot based on the information obtained from the Central Nervous System of a Robot (CNSR) about the environment and conditions of the system, in many respects, is defined by the ability of this robot to form the language of feelings and reflexive reasoning. The purpose of the article is to describe approaches to adopt behavioral (reflexive) solutions of a robot on the basis of the language of feelings similar to a human. The language is formed of information obtained by the central nervous system of robots from being its part of sensory system. Results: New methods of adoption of behavioral decisions and formation of language of feelings of the type “friend–foe”, “dangerous–safe”, “loved–unloved”, “pleasant–unpleasant”, etc., in the framed central nervous system of the robot which is under construction on the basis of SEMS modules are suggested. Practical importance: The principles and approaches to decision-making offered in article on the basis of information from the central nervous system can be used to form laws of control of expedient behavior of intelligent robots.
Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, I. L. Tarasova, Vugar G. Kurbanov

Hierarchical Data Fusion Architecture for Unmanned Vehicles

Abstract
Purpose effective functioning of unmanned vehicles demands to process large amounts of various data. In order to systemize such data processing special so-called data fusion architectures are used (e.g. JDL, Waterfall, Boyd etc.). However, those have some shortages restricting their wide usage. A goal of this paper is to develop a new date fusion architecture which could be used on board of unmanned vehicles. Result this paper presents new hierarchical date fusion architecture for unmanned vehicles. This architecture has some advantages in comparison to those already in use. Practical results the developed data fusion architecture can be used for building complex data fusion systems on board of unmanned vehicles as well as of group of vehicles and even of systems of higher hierarchy.
I. L. Ermolov

Sensor Systems

Frontmatter

Automatic 3D Human Body Modelling

Abstract
Objective 3-layers adaptive system that detects, extracts, analyzes and models human bodies existed in video stream, it uses different detection methods in parallel and evaluates each detection result according to correctness measurements, and controls method’s work and priorities according to dynamic parameters; these parameters are updated continuously depending on the system’s statistics. The system gathers the information gradually; builds complete model based on already existed and trusted results, and waits for the missing information to update. Results introducing effective way to use different detection methods in parallel and control them adaptively, then make decision based on these unrelated sources, reducing the ambiguity in high complex environments by depending on all features of the human body, which leaded to more accurate and trustful results. Practical importance The automatic 3D human body modeling system is presented; this system takes RGB video stream input, and extract the human body inside the video, then model this body with no depth information. This system can be used as an electronic vision system for mobile robots.
A. Yu. Kuchmin, Somar Karheily

Optoelectronic Autocollimating Video Sensor for a Mobile Robot

Abstract
Purpose developing of the structure and metrological parameters of the autocollimating video sensor to generate SEMS control signals at mobile robot arm tool for high-precision operations. Analyzing the method to increase the pitch and yaw angular measuring range of the autocollimating sensor. Results autocollimating video sensor using a sight target compose of three reflectors designed as glass tetrahedrons with angles of 90° between reflecting edges allows for generation of SEMS control signals for steering the mobile robot and its operating arm in all motion modes: movement between target objects, approaching to the stop point, steering during performance of operations. If the reflecting edge of one of reflectors of the sight target is designed as a conical surface its retro-reflection property is preserved and the processing of the image of reflected beam allows for high precision positioning of the mobile SEMS platform of a mobile robot. Practical value universal autocollimating video-sensor for independent generation of control signals in three main movement modes: movement between target objects, approaching the stop point near the next target object, steering of the mobile robot or arm tool to perform required operation.
I. A. Konyakhin, Van Phong Hoang, A. I. Konyakhin

Method of Constructing a System of Optical Sensors for Mutual Orientation of Industrial Robots for Monitoring of the Technosphere Objects

Abstract
Purpose Developing of the methods of relative orientation of industrial robots and construction of three-dimensional scenes areas of interest using optical sensors. Results Developed the method of construction of the relative orientation of industrial robots to meet the challenges of reconstruction of three-dimensional mapping and image-set received from the optical sensors. The basis of this technique is the problem of finding the solution of the global position of each industrial robot on the relative orientation of each of them. The global position of the industrial robot characterized by a matrix of rotation and transfer vector in a coordinate system (adopted as a global). As a result of the global positioning possible to solve the major problems of vision such as detection, tracking and classification of objects of the space in which these systems and robots operate. Practical significance Continuous qualitative monitoring of technosphere objects.
A. V. Petrochenko, I. A. Konyakhin

Working Bodies

Frontmatter

Adaptive Capture

Abstract
Purpose when solving modern problems of robotics, designing of tiny adaptive captures is becoming urgent for the medical micro robots equipped by controlled tiny and energy-efficient propellers imitating human hands. The purpose of this work is to develop new structure of the adaptive capture adjusting to the taken object by means of changing the form and rigidity of fingers. Results a new type of the tiny adaptive capture imitating work of hands and allowing to adapt to the environment by means of control over rigidity and shape of phalanxes of fingers is suggested in the article. The algorithm of work of its system of automatic control is also suggested. Practical importance the suggested adaptive capture with the controlled rigidity and form is supplied with the corresponding system of automatic control and can be used in micro robots of different function. The offered algorithms of work of system of automatic control of the developed captures with the controlled form and rigidity can be easily modified to capture objects of various shapes and forms.
I. L. Tarasova, Vugar G. Kurbanov, Andrey E. Gorodetskiy

Controlled Ciliated Propulsion

Abstract
Purpose when modern problems of robotics are being solved, the bionic approach where robots imitate complexity and adaptability of biological systems gains more ground nowadays. Particularly, it is urgent for the medical micro robots equipped by controlled tiny and energy-efficient propellers. The purpose of this article is to develop new structures of controlled propellers imitating muscle work of animals and people. Results new types of the tiny controlled propellers imitating operation of the ciliary apparatus of a human’s eye and its intellectual systems of automatic control are suggested. With the use of computer modeling, it is shown that the suggested type of the propeller allows reaching the dynamic characteristics required for medical micro robots. Practical importance the suggested controlled ciliary propellers supplied with the corresponding systems of automatic control can be used in micro robots of different function. At the same time, they can adapt to the environment due to control over rigidity and forms of elements of the propeller.
I. L. Tarasova, Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, Vugar G. Kurbanov

Flagella Propeller

Abstract
Purpose: when modern problems of robotics are being solved, the bionic approach where robots imitate complexity and adaptability of biological systems gains more ground nowadays. Particularly, it is urgent for the medical micro robots equipped by controlled tiny and energy-efficient propellers. The purpose of this article is to develop new structure of flagella propellers imitating the work of biological flagella propeller. Results: a new type of the tiny flagella propeller imitating operation of the biological flagella propeller and allowing adapting to the environment due to control over rigidity and forms of elements of the propeller is suggested here, as well as its intellectual system of automatic control. With the use of computer modeling, it is shown that the suggested type of the propeller allows reaching the dynamic characteristics required for medical micro robots. Practical importance: the suggested adaptive flagella propeller with controlled rigidity is supplied with the corresponding systems of automatic control can be used in micro robots of different function. Development of dynamics and setup of parameters of flagella propellers with the controlled form and rigidity by means of computer modeling can be improved by inclusion of the model of SEMS module into the constructed model designed by authors earlier.
I. L. Tarasova, Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, Vugar G. Kurbanov, A. Yu. Kuchmin

Linearized Model of the Mechanism with Parallel Structure

Abstract
Purpose The mode of tracking is one of the main operating modes of electromechanical systems of parallel architecture, for example adaptive platforms (Smart Electromechanical Systems—SEMS). The systems are nonlinear and non-stationary plants therefore control of them requires use of adaptive regulators for the purpose of increase in accuracy, speed and reliability of such systems. A research purpose is development of a technique of development of the linear models for synthesis of adaptive regulator of a platform moved by group of actuators, taking into account change of the line of action of these actuators in the tracking mode. Results the non-stationary model of the adaptive platform moved by group of n actuators working in the tracking mode is received, formulas of calculation of matrixes of parameters of this model depending on the chosen stationary point or a basic trajectory in phase space are received. It is shown that for such adaptive platforms it is necessary to consider change of length and the line of action of actuators. Practical importance the offered algorithms of calculation of a matrix of parameters of non-stationary model of an adaptive platform are effective in case of implementation of the predictive model allowing to estimate not measured components of a state vector of a platform and calculation of parameters of regulators that will lead to increase in accuracy and reliability of a control system in the tracking mode.
A. Yu. Kuchmin, V. V. Dubarenko

Automatic Control Systems

Frontmatter

Multiagent Approach to Control a Multisection Trunk-Type Manipulator

Abstract
Purpose We consider a multisection trunk type manipulator built on the basis of parallel structure mechanisms, for example, on the basis of tripods or hexapods. Control of such a manipulator is a serious problem, as, in addition to control of each section of the manipulator, it is necessary to control the entire structure. To resolve this problem we suggest using a multiagent approach, neural networks and neuro-fuzzy technologies. We introduce an automatic control system for the trunk type manipulator, as well as the functions implemented by the coordinator and agents of this system. Results We investigate the efficiency of the adaptive agent built on the basis of a neural network inverse model of the control object, as well as on the basis of the reference model of the object in the form of another multilayer neural network. Practical value The presented in the article the automatic control system for the trunk type manipulator can be used to create intelligent robotic system capable to react to changing uncertain conditions in real time.
Yu. T. Kaganov, A. P. Karpenko

Self-learning Neural Network Control System for Physical Model with One Degree of Freedom of System of Active Vibration Isolation and Pointing of Payload Spacecraft

Abstract
Purpose The area of biomimetic robots is successfully developing in intelligent robotics using SEMS and Neurotechnology. These robots are based on the borrowing its core elements from nature and able to adapt to the environment of the real world and to be truly intelligent autonomous robotic devices. For example, the neural network control system are used in intelligent robots, capable of self-learning like brain. Overall, the self-learning neural network control system have a structure similar central and peripheral nervous systems of vertebrates and man. The aim of the publication is the description of the developed model of the self-learning neural network control of a single-stage physical model of intelligence system of active vibration protection and very precise pointing of large precision space antennas. Results Model of the self-learning neural network control system of a single-stage physical model of intelligence system of active vibration protection and very precise pointing of the payload of the spacecraft is developed and tested. The advantages of application of neural PID controller are shown compared with conventional PID controller. Practical value The presented in the article the self-learning neural network control system of a single-stage physical model can be used to create autonomous intelligent robotic system capable to react to changing uncertain conditions in real time outside the operator’s actions, for example in deep space.
S. N. Sayapin, Yu. N. Artemenko, S. V. Panteleev

Synthesis of Control of Hinged Bodies Relative Motion Ensuring Move of Orientable Body to Necessary Absolute Position

Abstract
Purpose: Taking into account evolution trends of space-system engineering, on solution of tasks concerned with control systems elaboration, making of Robot Central Nervous System (RCNS) for perspective space-purpose robotic systems, we can talk about urgency of problems of brake-release mode analysis, which specificity is determined by functionality of systems under consideration and orbital external environment. The paper considers characteristic features of controlled motion of space system “movable platform-manipulator—payload”, which moves in inertial space under the action of the hinged control in conditions free of external forces. Results: Using mathematical model obtained in Artemenko et al. (Smart electromechanical systems. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 177–190, 2016, [1]) the paper examines an example of task solution of control synthesis of relative movement of orientable and lifting body, providing setting of orientable body in desired absolute position. Practical importance: There are perspective space systems, for which the considered type of controlled motion is possible as normal mode of operation being of applied interest.
Yu. N. Artemenko, A. P. Karpenko, P. P. Belonozhko

Automatic Control System of Adaptive Capture

Abstract
Purpose: in solving modern problems of robotics, development of systems of automatic control for adaptive captures imitating work of human hands is getting more urgency. The purpose of this work is to develop a new structure of systems of automatic control for adaptive capture providing adjustment to the taken object by means of change of form and rigidity of fingers. Results: the systems of automatic control for adaptive capture imitating work of a hand and providing prompt and exact adaptation to the size and form of the taken object by means of control over rigidity and shape of phalanxes of fingers is suggested in the paper. The algorithm of work of such system of automatic control is also suggested here. Practical importance: the system of automatic control for adaptive capture with the controlled rigidity and form can be used in micro robots of different function. When developing dynamics and setup of parameters of the system of automatic control of adaptive capture with the controlled form and rigidity, the mathematical and computer model of automatic control of SEMS module can be employed.
Vugar G. Kurbanov, Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, I. L. Tarasova

Computer Simulation of Automatic Control System Ciliated Propulsion

Abstract
Purpose: in solving modern problems of automatic control of robots imitating complexity and adaptability of biological systems, computer modeling with its potential to develop dynamics and setting configuration of control systems gains more ground. It is particularly urgent for the medical micro robots equipped by controlled tiny and energy-efficient propellers. The purpose of this work is to develop computer models of control systems for new adaptive propellers imitating muscle work of animals and people. Results: the computer models of control systems for new types of tiny adaptive propellers imitating operation of ciliary apparatus of a human and allowing to adapt to the environment by means of control over rigidity and form of elements of the propeller are suggested in the article. With the use of computer modeling, suggested types of propellers allow to reach the dynamic characteristics required for medical micro robots. Practical importance: computer models of control systems for ciliary propellers allow to estimate their dynamics and to perform setting of parameters of the considered propellers in micro robots of different function. Development of dynamics and setup of parameters of ciliary propellers by means of computer modeling can be improved by inclusion of the model of SEMS module into the constructed model designed by authors earlier.
Vugar G. Kurbanov, Andrey E. Gorodetskiy, I. L. Tarasova

Methodical Features of Acquisition of Independent Dynamic Equation of Relative Movement of One-Degree of Freedom Manipulator on Movable Foundation as Control Object

Abstract
Purpose Model problems, where dynamic conditions permit an analytical treatment and it is possible to reveal qualitative movement pattern, to analyze influence of control object parameters to its execution behaviour, are of substantial interest in the view of features of synthesis of control and making a Robot Central Nervous System (RCNS) for perspective robot systems. Results During the stated problem formulated in [1] a procedure of acquisition of independent dynamic equation of a plain articulate two-element mechanism relative motion, based on separation of generalized coordinates on cyclic and positional, is considered. Practical importance Received results have a method value in the view of research of the case being of applied interest of spatial motion of system of two solids connected using spatial mechanism with purposive variable configuration (manipulator).
P. P. Belonozhko
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