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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on the role of systems and control. Focusing on the current and future development of smart grids in the generation and transmission of energy, it provides an overview of the smart grid control landscape, and the potential impact of the various investigations presented has for technical aspects of power generation and distribution as well as for human and economic concerns such as pricing, consumption and demand management.
A tutorial exposition is provided in each chapter, describing the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Topics in these chapters include:
wide-area control;
issues of estimation and integration at the transmission;
distribution, consumers, and demand management; and
cyber-physical security for smart grid control systems.
The contributors describe the problems involved with each topic, and what impact these problems would have if not solved.
The tutorial components and the opportunities and challenges detailed make this book ideal for anyone interested in new paradigms for modernized, smart power grids, and anyone in a field where control is applied. More specifically, it is a valuable resource for students studying smart grid control, and for researchers and academics wishing to extend their knowledge of the topic.



Electricity Markets


Electricity Markets in the United States: A Brief History, Current Operations, and Trends

The global energy landscape is witnessing a concerted effort toward grid modernization. Motivated by sustainability, skyrocketing demand for electricity, and the inability of a legacy infrastructure to accommodate distributed and intermittent resources, a cyber-physical infrastructure is emerging to embrace zero-emission energy assets such as wind and solar generation and results in a smart grid that delivers green, reliable, and affordable power. A key ingredient of this infrastructure is electricity markets, the first layer of decision-making in a smart grid. This chapter provides an overview of electricity markets which can be viewed as the backdrop for their emerging role in a modernized, cyber-enabled grid. Starting from a brief history of the electricity markets in the United States, the article proceeds to delineate the current market structure, and closes with a description of current trends and emerging directions.
Thomas R. Nudell, Anuradha M. Annaswamy, Jianming Lian, Karanjit Kalsi, David D’Achiardi

Some Emerging Challenges in Electricity Markets

Energy deregulation in the 90s led to the development of power markets in the United States. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978 laid down the early foundations of deregulation. Subsequent legislations included the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct92) and FERC Order No. 888 in 1996. They established the rules to “remove impediments to competition in the wholesale bulk power marketplace” by promoting “non-discriminatory transmission services” [1]. These legislations led to the development of two different market architectures in different parts of the US. In one, utility companies established a bilateral market to transact with independent power producers and/or other utilities. In others, a third-party nonprofit facilitator—an Independent System Operator (ISO) or a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO)—was established to mediate between the buyers and the sellers of power at the wholesale level. Our discussion in this article will primarily revolve around the latter.
Subhonmesh Bose, Steven H. Low

Incentivizing Market and Control for Ancillary Services in Dynamic Power Grids

We discuss an incentivizing market and model-based approach to design the energy management and control systems, which realize high-quality ancillary services in dynamic power grids. Under the electricity liberalization, such incentivizing market should secure a high-speed market-clearing by using the market players’ private information well. Inspired by contract theory in microeconomics field, we propose a novel design method of such incentivizing market on the basis of integration of the economic model and the dynamic grid model. We first outline our contract and model-based method to design the incentivizing market and clarify the basic properties of the designed market. We then discuss possibilities, limitation, and fundamental challenges in the direction of our approach and general market-based approaches.
Kenko Uchida, Kenji Hirata, Yasuaki Wasa

Long-Term Challenges for Future Electricity Markets with Distributed Energy Resources

Recently, the academic and industrial literature has arrived at a consensus in which the electric grid evolves to a more intelligent, responsive, dynamic, flexible, and adaptive system. This evolution is caused by several drivers including decarbonization, electrified transportation, deregulation, growing electricity demand, and active consumer participation. Many of these changes will occur at the periphery of the grid, in the radial distribution system and its potentially billions of demand-side resources. Such spatially distributed energy resources naturally require equally distributed control and electricity market design approaches to enable an increasingly active “smart grid.” In that regard, this chapter serves to highlight lessons recently learned from the literature and point to three open long-term challenges facing future design of electricity markets. They are (1) simultaneously manage the technical and economic performance of the electricity grid; (2) span multiple operations timescales, and (3) enable active demand-side resources. For each challenge, some recent contributions are highlighted and promising directions for future work are identified.
Steffi Muhanji, Aramazd Muzhikyan, Amro M. Farid

Distributed Control for DER Integration


Distributed Control of Power Grids

This chapter provides a short introduction to the part of this volume dealing with distributed control of power grids. A brief description of some of the challenges facing existing power grids from a control perspective is given. The research community dealing with distributed control of power grids is highly active, and there already exists a vast literature on the topic. A coverage of this literature with any pretense of full or partial completeness would be difficult (if not impossible) and is not in any way attempted in this brief introduction.
Jakob Stoustrup

Virtual Energy Storage from Flexible Loads: Distributed Control with QoS Constraints

Loads are expected to help the power grid of the future in balancing the highs and lows caused by intermittent renewables such as solar and wind. With appropriate intelligence, loads will be able manipulate demand around a nominal baseline so that the increase and decrease of demand appears like charging and discharging of a battery, thereby creating a virtual energy storage (VES) device. An important question for the control systems community is: how to control these flexible loads so that the apparently conflicting goal of maintaining consumers’ quality of service (QoS) and providing reliable grid support are achieved? We advocate a frequency domain thinking of handling both of these issues, along the lines of a recent paper. In this article, we discuss some of the challenges and opportunities in designing appropriate control algorithms and coordination architectures in obtaining reliable VES from flexible loads.
Prabir Barooah

Distributed Design of Smart Grids for Large-Scalability and Evolution

Due to the massive complexity and organizational differences of future power grids, the notion of distributed design becomes more significant in a near future. The distributed design is a new notion of system design in which we individually design local subsystems and independently connect each of them to a preexisting system. In this article, we discuss challenges and opportunities for solving problems of the distributed design of smart grids so that they are flexible to incorporate regional and organizational differences, resilient to undesirable incidents, and able to facilitate addition and modifications of grid components.
Tomonori Sadamoto, Takayuki Ishizaki, Jun-ichi Imura

Smart Grid Control: Opportunities and Research Challenges a Decentralized Stochastic Control Approach

Recent challenges in power system stability and operation are due to the fact that these complex systems have not evolved in a way to deal with new forms of power generation and load types. Although the grid of the twenty-first century known as “Smart Grid” uses technologies such as two-way communication, advanced sensors, computer-based remote control, and automation, it does not adequately consider increased use of renewable energy which is becoming a major component of the power grid. Moreover, the potential for instability caused by increased frequency deviation and energy imbalance due to high penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) places major constraints on their usage. Therefore, finding a solution to improve the stability of power systems with high penetration of Renewable Energy (RE) is a major challenge that needs to be addressed.
Maryam Khanbaghi

Wide-Area Control Using Real-Time Data


Wide-Area Communication and Control: A Cyber-Physical Perspective

For several decades, the traditional mindset for controlling large-scale power systems has been limited to local output feedback control, which means that controllers installed within the operating region of any utility company typically use measurements available only from inside that region for feedback, and, in fact, more commonly only from the vicinity of the controller location. Examples of such controllers include Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR), Power System Stabilizers (PSS), Automatic Generation Control (AGC), FACTS control, HVDC, and so on.
Aranya Chakrabortty

Research Challenges for Design and Implementation of Wide-Area Control

The 2003 Northeast blackout uncovered the vulnerability of the US power system, and manifested the urgent need for real-time state monitoring and control of the grid leading to the development of the wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) technology.
Aranya Chakrabortty

Signal Processing in Smart Grids: From Data to Reliable Information

The recent proliferation of data is revolutionizing the practice of power system monitoring and control. With the Smart Grid initiative, more than two thousand multi-channel phasor measurement units (PMUs) [37] have now been installed in North America [35]. PMUs can directly measure GPS-synchronized bus voltage phasors, line current phasors, and the frequency, at a rate of 30 or 60 samples per second per channel. Compared to the conventional Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems that only provide measurements every 2–5 s, which are not accurately synchronized in time, PMUs can drastically improve the system visibility and enhance the situational awareness.
Meng Wang

WAMS-Based Controlled System Separation to Mitigate Cascading Failures in Smart Grid

Catastrophic power blackouts can cause tremendous losses and influence up to tens of millions of people. Since the 1965 Northeast Blackout, many efforts have been made by power industry, but cascading power outages continued to happen. Some recent blackout events are such as the east and west coast blackouts in North America in 2003 and 2011, respectively, the 2006 European blackout and the 2012 Indian blackout events [15]. Blackouts are usually caused by cascading failures initiated by, e.g., natural disasters and mis-operations, which are long chains of dependent equipment failures or outages successively weakening the transmission network [6]. If not prevented or mitigated, cascading failures can break the stability and integrity of the system and result in large-area power outages. When cascading failures occur, it is hard for grid operators to manually take a real-time remedial action in a matter of tens of seconds, so automatic system-wide protection and control schemes are vitally important to stop propagation of failures towards wide areas. At present, most existing protection systems lack adaptability and system-wide coordination. Their mechanism is prone to trip equipment under a predefined fault or abnormal condition, which, however, further weakens the transmission network and may speed up propagation of failures. Therefore, effective mitigation of cascading failures requires smart grid be armed with an adaptive, system-wide protection, and control scheme.
Kai Sun

Cyber-Physical Security


Smart Grid Security: Attacks and Defenses

Electric grids in the future will be highly integrated with information and communications technology. The increase in use the of information technology is expected to enhance reliability, efficiency, and sustainability of the future electric grid through the implementation of sophisticated monitoring and control strategies. However, it also comes at a price that the grid becomes more vulnerable to cyber-intrusions which may damage the physical system. This chapter provides an overview of cyberattacks on power systems from a system theoretical perspective by focusing on the tight coupling between the physical system and the communication network. It is demonstrated via several attack scenarios how the adversary may cause significant impacts on the power system by intercepting the communication channel and without possibly being detected. The attack strategies and the corresponding countermeasures are formulated and analyzed using tools from optimization, dynamical systems, and control theory.
Azwirman Gusrialdi, Zhihua Qu

Multilayer Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience for Smart Grid

The smart grid is a large-scale complex system that integrates communication technologies with the physical layer operation of the energy systems. Security and resilience mechanisms by design are important to provide guarantee operations for the system. This chapter provides a layered perspective of the smart grid security and discusses game and decision theory as a tool to model the interactions among system components and the interaction between attackers and the system. We discuss game-theoretic applications and challenges in the design of cross-layer robust and resilient controller, secure network routing protocol at the data communication and networking layers, and the challenges of the information security at the management layer of the grid. The chapter will discuss the future directions of using game-theoretic tools in addressing multilayer security issues in the smart grid.
Quanyan Zhu

Cyber Security for Power System State Estimation

State estimation is a critical application that provides situational awareness and permits efficient operation of the smart grid. The secure, accurate, and fast computation of the state estimates is crucial to execute the complex decisions and diverse control actions needed in real time to provide reliable, economic, and safe power systems that integrate distributed and intermittent renewable generation. This chapter discusses research directions to evaluate the cyber security and develop novel algorithms for securing today and tomorrow’s power state estimation and grid operation.
Yacine Chakhchoukh, Hideaki Ishii

Challenges and Opportunities: Cyber-Physical Security in the Smart Grid

In this chapter, we develop a vision to address challenges in securing the smart grid. Despite recent innovations, grid security remains a critical issue. The infrastructure is highly vulnerable due to its large scale, connectivity, and heterogeneity. Moreover, attacks on cyber-physical systems and the grid have been realized, most notably the attack on the Ukraine power system in 2015. While techniques in cyber security are useful, their implementation is not sufficient to secure the smart grid. Consequently, we advocate for research in cyber-physical system security, an interdisciplinary field which combines tools from both cyber security and system theory. Within this field, we argue that engineers need to develop a framework of accountability comprised of three main research thrusts: (1) the detection of attacks, (2) the attribution of attacks to particular malicious components and devices on the grid, and (3) the resilient design of systems and algorithms to ensure acceptable performance in the presence of malicious behavior. To close, we discuss the need for a unifying language and set of tools to address these problems, as we consider additional research in compositional security.
Sean Weerakkody, Bruno Sinopoli

Toward Resilient Operation of Smart Grid

Electric grids in the future will be highly integrated with information and communications technology resulting in a complex cyber-physical system. The increase in the use of information technology is expected to enhance reliability, efficiency, and sustainability of the future electric grid through the implementation of sophisticated monitoring and control strategies. However, the information and communication technology is known to be vulnerable to cyber-intrusions, which may cause physical damage to the power network due to the tight coupling between the physical and cyber layers. This chapter first discusses potential strategies to detect stealthy attacks in a smart grid. Since attacks cannot be foreseen in advance, it is highly desirable to design control algorithms so that the networked system becomes resilient against unknown attacks. Moreover, the heterogeneity of the individual dynamics and the openness of the networked system introduce additional challenges in designing the resilient control algorithm. To this end, we discuss the concept of passivity-short and demonstrate its potential to deal with heterogeneous dynamics and enable plug-and-play operation of the networked system. Two distributed control strategies are then presented to guarantee the resilience of the networked system against unknown attacks.
Azwirman Gusrialdi, Zhihua Qu
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