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Über dieses Buch

Nowadays, Smart Grid has become an established synonym for modern electric power systems. Electric networks are fed less and less by large, centrally planned fossil and nuclear power plants but more and more by millions of smaller, renewable and mostly weather-dependent generation units. A secure energy supply in such a sustainable and ecological system requires a completely different approach for planning, equipping and operating the electric power systems of the future, especially by using flexibility provisions of the network users according to the Smart Grid concept. The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Grids and the characteristics of power plants based on renewable energy with highly efficient generation principles and storage capabilities. It covers the advanced technologies applied today in the transmission and distribution networks and innovative solutions for maintaining today’s high power quality under the challenging conditions of large-scale shares of volatile renewable energy sources in the annual energy balance. Besides considering the new primary and secondary technology solutions and control facilities for the transmission and distribution networks, prospective market conditions allowing network operators and the network users to gain benefits are also discussed. The growing role of information and communication technologies is investigated. The importance of new standards is underlined and the current international efforts in developing a consistent set of standards are updated in the second edition and described in detail. The updated presentation of international experiences to apply novel Smart Grid solutions to the practice of network operation concludes this book.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Vision and Strategy for the Electricity Networks of the Future

Abstract
The vision for the electric power system of the future was developed by a European group of experts in the framework of the Technology Platform “Smart Grids”. The driving forces, the definitions and the core elements of the Smart Grid concept are presented separately for both the transmission and distribution systems. The growing importance of renewable energy sources for electricity generation is considered and the related challenges are specified. The transformation of todays’ electricity networks into Smart Grids is the best way to meet these challenges.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 2. Smart Generation: Resources and Potentials

Abstract
The need to modernize the electricity networks is based first and foremost on the integration of more sustainable generation resources, especially the partially volatile renewable sources. The volatile character which is due to significant shares of renewable sources (wind and sun) has a crucial influence on the operational behavior of the overall power system. Consequently, it is necessary to significantly enhance the flexibility and smartness of the electricity generation processes. Smart Generation concerns the complex coordination of volatile and definitely controllable power plants, storage capabilities and demand side management facilities. The advanced generation and storage technologies are described. Both the Smart Grid and Smart Generation concepts will ensure the reliable, sustainable and environmentally friendly electric power supply of the future.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 3. Modern Technologies and the Smart Grid Challenges in Transmission Networks

Abstract
Smart Grids incorporate the latest innovative technologies to ensure a revolutionary change in the area of electricity supply.  On the transmission level advanced technologies are requested to enhance the transfer capability of the network. Furthermore, digital protection, substation automation and SCADA systems are worldwide introduced to ensure a flexible and smart transmission system management. The overview of the fundamentals, the most innovative technologies and the upcoming Smart Grid challenges is presented according to the Smart Grid readiness of transmission systems.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 4. Design of Distribution Networks and the Impact of New Network Users

Abstract
The medium and low voltage distribution networks are designed to allow short term supply interruptions after disturbances. Consequently, the majority of supply interruptions are observed in these network levels. Advanced network design, technologies and operation methods support the improvement of the power quality with the components “reliability of supply”, “voltage quality” and “service quality” at the distribution level. Innovative technologies, planning concepts and operation management are described. New challenges arising from the integration of new classes of network users are specified.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 5. Smart Operation and Observability at the Transmission Level

Abstract
Increasing transmission demands caused by free energy trading activities, and in many countries, by an unlimited in-feed of volatile wind and solar power, are stressing the power systems and causing more frequent congestions in the transmission networks. An analysis of the large power system disturbances in the period between 2003 and 2006 demonstrates the risk of congestions developing into blackouts. New system concepts, such as “Wide Area Monitoring” “Adaptive Protection” or “Advanced Predictions for Load, Generation and Congestions” have to be introduced to ensure an intelligent congestion management and to reduce the risk of disturbances.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 6. The Three Pillars of Smart Distribution

Abstract
A growing share of electricity mainly based on renewable energy sources will be injected into the distribution networks. Distribution networks will become active and will have to accommodate bi-directional power flows. The enhancement of distribution networks into Smart Grids will become necessary in order to maintain todays’ high quality of power supply. The top priority for ensuring this enhancement requires the introduction of new functions and technologies classified as the three pillars of Smart Distribution: “Remote control and automation”, “Aggregation of distributed energy resources and de-centralized energy management” and “Smart Metering supporting the involvement of the consumers into the electricity market”.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 7. Design of the Smart Energy Market

Abstract
The enhancement of electricity networks into Smart Grids requires a significant financial investment. The return of investment is not visible under the market rules currently applied in many countries. Smart Grids and Smart Market can be developed only in a mutual relationship to one another. A vision for the prospective electricity market design including the specification of business models motivating the Smart Grid enhancement is considered. Economic benefits may be gained by all stakeholders involved in the electricity supply processes if progressive market conditions are introduced.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 8. Advanced Information and Communication Technology: The Backbone of Smart Grids

 Abstract
Innovative information and communication technologies (ICT) build the backbone of Smart Grids. A seamless and secure information exchange beginning with the consumer socket up to the control centers of the transmission system operators is the foundation for the reliable network integration of a growing share of renewable energy sources, for the further liberalization of the electricity markets and for the consumers' participation in this market. The growing role of international standards for communication, data management and information security is considered in detail. International efforts in the area of Smart Grid standards providing higher engineering efficiency and interoperability are presented.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski

Chapter 9. Smart Grids Worldwide

Abstract
All over the world, intensive activities are being carried out to transfer the existing electricity networks into Smart Grids. The related efforts of the world’s largest power system operators in China, North America, Europe and Russia are analysed. Attention is also given to the ambitious Smart Grid strategies of smaller countries like Denmark and South Korea.  International experiences in applying novel Smart Grid solutions to the practice of distribution network operations conclude the book.
Bernd M. Buchholz, Zbigniew A. Styczynski
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