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A Smart Grid delivers renewable energy as a main source of electricity from producers to consumers using two-way monitoring through Smart Meter technology that can remotely control consumer electricity use. This can help to storage excess energy; reduce costs, increase reliability and transparency, and make processes more efficiently. Smart Grids: Opportunities, Developments, and Trends discusses advances in Smart Grid in today’s dynamic and rapid growing global economical and technological environments.

Current development in the field are systematically explored with an introduction, detailed discussion and an experimental demonstration. Each chapter also includes the future scope and ongoing research for each topic. Smart Grids: Opportunities, Developments, and Trends provides up to date knowledge, research results, and innovations in Smart Grids spanning design, implementation, analysis and evaluation of Smart Grid solutions to the challenging problems in all areas of power industry.

Providing a solid foundation for graduate and postgraduate students, this thorough approach also makes Smart Grids: Opportunities, Developments, and Trends a useful resource and hand book for researchers and practitioners in Smart Grid research. It can also act as a guide to Smart Grids for industry professionals and engineers from different fields working with Smart Grids.



Chapter 1. The Traditional Power Generation and Transmission System: Some Fundamentals to Overcome Challenges

In present power system, the engineers face variety of challenges in planning, construction and operation. In some of the problems, the engineers need to use managerial talents. In system design or upgrading the entire system into automatic control instead of slow response of human operator, the engineers need to exercise more technical knowledge and experience. It is principally the engineer’s ability to achieve the success in all respect and provide the reliable and uninterrupted service to the customers. This chapter covers some important areas of the traditional power system that helps engineers to overcome the challenges. It emphasizes the characteristics of the various components of a power system such as generation, transmission, distribution, protection and SCADA system. During normal operating conditions and disturbances, the acquired knowledge will provide the engineers the ability to analyse the performance of the complex system and execute future improvement.
Md Fakhrul Islam, Amanullah M. T. Oo, Shaheen Hasan Chowdhury

Chapter 2. Smart Grid

All over the world, electrical power systems are encountering radical change stimulated by the urgent need to decarbonize electricity supply, to swap aging resources and to make effective application of swiftly evolving information and communication technologies (ICTs). All of these goals converge toward one direction; ‘Smart Grid.’ The Smart Grid can be described as the transparent, seamless, and instantaneous two-way delivery of energy information, enabling the electricity industry to better manage energy delivery and transmission and empowering consumers to have more control over energy decisions. Basically, the vision of Smart Grid is to provide much better visibility to lower-voltage networks as well as to permit the involvement of consumers in the function of the power system, mostly through smart meters and Smart Homes. A Smart Grid incorporates the features of advanced ICTs to convey real-time information and facilitate the almost instantaneous stability of supply and demand on the electrical grid. The operational data collected by Smart Grid and its sub-systems will allow system operators to quickly recognize the best line of attack to protect against attacks, susceptibility, and so on, sourced by a variety of incidents. However, Smart Grid initially depends upon knowing and researching key performance components and developing the proper education program to equip current and future workforce with the knowledge and skills for exploitation of this greatly advanced system. The aim of this chapter is to provide a basic discussion of the Smart Grid concept, evolution and components of Smart Grid, environmental impacts of Smart Grid and then in some detail, to describe the technologies that are required for its realization. Even though the Smart Grid concept is not yet fully defined, the chapter will be helpful in describing the key enabling technologies and thus allowing the reader to play a part in the debate over the future of the Smart Grid. The chapter concludes with the experimental description and results of developing a hybrid prediction method for solar power which is applicable to successfully implement the ‘Smart Grid.’
Md Rahat Hossain, Amanullah M. T. Oo, A. B. M. Shawkat Ali

Chapter 3. Renewable Energy Integration: Opportunities and Challenges

Renewable energy (RE) is staring to be used as the panacea for solving current climate change or global warming threats. Therefore, government, utilities and research communities are working together to integrate large-scale RE into the power grid. However, there are a number of potential challenges in integrating RE with the existing grid. The major potential challenges are as follows: unpredictable power generation, week grid system and impacts on power quality (PQ) and reliability. This chapter investigates the potential challenges in integrating RE as well as distributed energy resources (DERs) with the smart power grid including the possible deployment issues for a sustainable future both nationally and internationally. Initially, the prospects of RE with their possible deployment issues were investigated. Later, a prediction model was proposed that informs the typical variation in energy generation as well as effect on grid integration using regression algorithms. This chapter also investigates the potential challenges in integrating RE into the grid through experimental and simulation analyses.
G. M. Shafiullah, Amanullah M. T. Oo, A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, Peter Wolfs, Mohammad T. Arif

Chapter 4. Energy Storage: Applications and Advantages

Energy storage (ES) is a form of media that store some form of energy to be used at a later time. In traditional power system, ES play a relatively minor role, but as the intermittent renewable energy (RE) resources or distributed generators and advanced technologies integrate into the power grid, storage becomes the key enabler of low-carbon, smart power systems for the future. Most RE sources cannot provide steady energy supply and introduce a potential unbalance in energy supply and load demand. ES can buffer sizable portion of energy generated by different intermittent RE sources during low demand time and export it back into the network as required. ES can be utilized in load shifting, energy management and network voltage regulations. It can play a large role in supplementing peaking generation to meet short-period peak load demand. ES technologies are classified considering energy and power density, response time, cost, lifetime and efficiency. Different application requires different types of ES system (ESS). IEEE 1547 and AS 4777 provide guideline to connect RE and storage into the distribution network. Based on the standards, utility operators plan in gradual integration of RE into the grid. Storage can play significant role in reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by maximizing RE utilization. As the utility operator needs to support costly peak load demand which could be supported by storage and as a consequence, storage can help in energy cost reduction. Although, the present cost of storage considered a barrier for extensive use, however, research is going on for low-cost, high-performance storage system. Therefore, in the low-carbon future power system, ES will play a significant role in increasing grid reliability and enabling smart grid capabilities for sustainable future by balancing RE output.
Mohammad Taufiqul Arif, Amanullah M. T. Oo, A. B. M. Shawkat Ali

Chapter 5. Smart Meter

Utility meters are being changed from simple measurement devices to multi-dimensional technical devices and also enhanced by the addition of new informational and communication capacities like smarter metering systems [1]. Smart meters enable automatic, bi-directional communication between the consumers and the utility. Compared to traditional energy, meters display only the amount of energy consumed, but smart meters can directly send usage data back to the utility. The information of electricity consumption could be collected in real time with accuracy from smart meter [2]. Modern distribution companies are required to adopt smart meters in their network to improve the efficiency of the networks and to be in par with the smart grid environment. This chapter has conducted a rigorous review that outlines the existing distribution network, deployment of smart meter in distribution network, and possible difficulties to deploy smart meter network in distribution system. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the necessary background to understand the concepts related to smart meter, smart meter network, and relevant research carried out in this area. A concise review of importance of implementing smart meter in distribution network, bandwidth requirement for smart meter network, bandwidth and latency barrier in smart meter network, and communication coverage of smart meter network is presented.
M. Rahman, Amanullah M. T. Oo

Chapter 6. Demand Forecasting in Smart Grid

Changes in temperature, rainfall, icefall, sea level, and the frequency and severity of extreme events are raising a question that how much energy we should produce to meet the world demand. The smart grid is a new paradigm that enables two-way communications between the electricity providers and consumers. Smart grid emerged due to the initiatives by the engineers to make the power grid more stable, reliable, efficient, and secure. The smart grid creates the opportunity for the electricity consumers to play a bigger role in their power usage and motivates them to use power sensibly and efficiently. Hence, in the implementation of smart grid, demand management going to play a vital role. Demand scheduling is an effective way to implement demand management at the customer side. It is an automated and intelligent method to shift a portion of the demand from peak to off peak so that the demand curve is flattened. To optimize the demand scheduling, the accurate energy usage pattern of the consumers is essential. This is where the demand forecasting comes into play. This chapter investigates how effectively the machine learning algorithms can forecast the electricity demand to facilitate electricity demand management. For the experiments, a real-life dataset is considered which was collected locally at Rockhampton, Australia. From the experimental experience, it is concluded that support vector machine is the most reliable machine learning tool for accurate prediction of electricity demand.
A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, Salahuddin Azad

Chapter 7. Database Systems for the Smart Grid

In this chapter, two aspects of database systems, namely database management and data mining, for the smart grid are covered. The uses of database management and data mining for the electrical power grid comprising of the interrelated subsystems of power generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization are discussed.
Zeyar Aung

Chapter 8. Securing the Smart Grid: A Machine Learning Approach

The demand of electricity is increasing in parallel with the growth of the world population. The existing power grid, which is over 100 years old, is facing many challenges to facilitate the continuous flow of electricity from large power plants to the consumers. To overcome these challenges, the power industry has warmly accepted the new concept smart grid which has been initiated by the engineers. This movement will be more beneficial and sustainable to the extent if we can offer a secure smart grid. Machine learning, representing a comparatively new era of Information Technology, can make smart grid really secure. This chapter provides an overview of the smart grid and a practical demonstration of maintaining the security of smart grid by incorporating machine learning.
A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, Salahuddin Azad, Tanzim Khorshed

Chapter 9. Smart Grid Communication and Networking Technologies: Recent Developments and Future Challenges

The smart grid is ostensibly the next generation power grid in which electrical energy distribution and management is efficiently performed by exploiting information communication technologies such as pervasive computing, in the control and decision-making processes. The smart grid is characterised by such functionality as being able to adapt to load and demand changes, intelligently manage bidirectional data flow and crucially enhance system reliability, robustness, security and sustainability. Communication networks play a crucial role in facilitating these features and are an integral component in any smart grid management system. In this chapter, the role of the communications network in smart grid operation is described together with its main functionalities. In particular, the challenges and opportunities for integrating existing and future wireless and mobile networks into the smart grid will be analysed, while the chapter concludes by identifying some future research directions for smart grid technologies.
Faisal Tariq, Laurence S. Dooley

Chapter 10. Economy of Smart Grid

Smart grid is generally characterized by high installation cost and low operating costs. Thus, the basic economic analysis is the one comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating costs. Most smart gird requires an auxiliary energy source so that the system includes both renewable and conventional equipment, and the annual loads are met by a combination of the sources. In essence, renewable-based smart grid is bought today to reduce tomorrow’s electricity bill. The costs of smart grid include all items of hardware and labor that are involved in installing the equipment plus the operating costs. Factors which may need to be taken into account include capital cost, replacement cost, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs, insurance, fuel, and other operating expenses. The objective of the economic analysis can be viewed as the determination of the least cost method of meeting the energy need, considering both renewable and non-renewable alternative. In this chapter, several ways of doing economic evaluation, with emphasis on the life cycle savings method are noted. This method takes into account the value of money and allows detailed consideration of the complete range of costs. In this chapter, the costs of smart grid, economic indicators of smart grid, design variables of smart grid, and a case study in Central Queensland are presented.
Gang Liu, M. G. Rasul, M. T. O. Amanullah, M. M. K. Khan


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