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Über dieses Buch

This book is centered on Smart grids and micro-grids, as a cost-effective method of ensuring fair and equitable access to power in urban areas. It also considers scenarios where deploying smart grids can be both cost-prohibitively expensive and logistically challenging. Deploying smart microgrids instead, offers a reliable power solution but, as is the case in smart grids, a key issue is guaranteeing usability, trust, and reliability while protecting against energy theft.

This book considers aspects such as state estimation, capacity planning, demand forecasting, price signals, and demand management with respect to energy theft. Straight-forward approaches to provoking energy theft on smart grids and micro-grids include mis-recordings power consumption/generation information and exposures of personally identifiable information or sensitive information. Attack models based on mis-recorded generation and/or consumption data and exposure of personally identifiable information, are also studied. In each case, countermeasures are proposed to circumvent the power theft attacks raised.

Researchers in Smart Micro-grids security, cyber-physical systems, and critical infrastructure will want to purchase this book as a reference. Professionals, Researchers, Academics and students working in security general and Security of Critical Infrastructure, Privacy, and Data Sharing will also want to purchase this book as a reference.



Chapter 1. Power Systems: A Matter of Security and Privacy

Studies indicate that reliable access to power is an important enabler for economic growth . To this end, modern energy management systems have seen a shift from reliance on time-consuming manual procedures , to highly automated management , with current energy provisioning systems being run as cyber-physical systems . Operating energy grids as a cyber-physical system offers the advantage of increased reliability and dependability , but also raises issues of security and privacy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the contents of this book showing the interrelation between the topics of the chapters in terms of smart energy provisioning. We begin by discussing the concept of smart-grids in general, proceeding to narrow our focus to smart micro-grids in particular. Lossy networks also provide an interesting framework for enabling the implementation of smart micro-grids in remote/rural areas, where deploying standard smart grids is economically and structurally infeasible. To this end, we consider an architectural design for a smart micro-grid suited to low-processing capable devices. We model malicious behaviour, and propose mitigation measures based properties to distinguish normal from malicious behaviour .
Anne V. D. M. Kayem, Stephen D. Wolthusen, Christoph Meinel

Chapter 2. A Review on Attacks and Their Countermeasures in Power System State Estimation

In this chapter we seek to provide an integrated, up-to-date survey of various attack models and corresponding protection regarding state estimation in larger-scale power systems . After giving brief overview of numerous attack and defence strategies in literature, the most appropriate between them are reported, explored and compared. Comparisons are performed on account of complexity level, optimality, considered structure, topology knowledge requirements and practical implementation along with the impact of advanced metering devices .
Ammara Gul, Stephen D. Wolthusen

Chapter 3. An Anonymous Authentication Protocol for the Smart Grid

The Smart Grid allows users to access information related to their electricity usage via IP networks. Both the validity and the privacy of such information should be guaranteed. Consumers’ electricity bills can then be charged directly to them via the Smart Grid, even outside their homes. Such information from this bill is strictly related to the privacy of consumers; hence, we propose an anonymous authentication protocol for electricity usage on the Smart Grid. Our main idea is to utilize group signatures with controllable linkability . In these group signatures, only designated signers can generate digital signatures with anonymity under a single group public key, and only entities with a link key can distinguish whether the signatures are generated by the same signer or not. Whereas our proposed protocol can include any group signature scheme with controllable linkability, we also propose new controllably linkable group signatures with tokens, which are handled by smart meters on the Smart Grid. We implement the proposed group signatures, and then estimate the computational time of our anonymous authentication protocol at about one-and-a-half seconds on Raspberry Pi.
Hikaru Kishimoto, Naoto Yanai, Shingo Okamura

Chapter 4. Attacks on Authentication and Authorization Models in Smart Grid

The evolution of a conventional electric grid infrastructure can be dated back to 1880s when the outstanding sources of energy were based on hydraulics and gas energy. But one cannot only depend upon the classic electric grid system in today’s digital world. However, the smart grid and smart micro grid provide electric power in many efficient and measured ways, which are helpful in the technology-enabled market. Accordingly, in this chapter, we explain structure of the smart grid and discuss various authentication schemes associated with it. We have described different security parameters and varied attacks, which should be considered for successful and secure usage of the smart grid system.
Trupil Limbasiya, Aakriti Arya

Chapter 5. A Resilient Smart Micro-Grid Architecture for Resource Constrained Environments

Resource constrained smart micro-grid architectures describe a class of smart micro-grid architectures that handle communications operations over a lossy network and depend on a distributed collection of power generation and storage units. Disadvantaged communities with no or intermittent access to national power networks can benefit from such a micro-grid model by using low cost communication devices to coordinate the power generation, consumption, and storage. Furthermore, this solution is both cost-effective and environmentally-friendly. One model for such micro-grids, is for users to agree to coordinate a power sharing scheme in which individual generator owners sell excess unused power to users wanting access to power. Since the micro-grid relies on distributed renewable energy generation sources which are variable and only partly predictable, coordinating micro-grid operations with distributed algorithms is necessity for grid stability. Grid stability is crucial in retaining user trust in the dependability of the micro-grid, and user participation in the power sharing scheme, because user withdrawals can cause the grid to breakdown which is undesirable. In this chapter, we present a distributed architecture for fair power distribution and billing on micro-grids. The architecture is designed to operate efficiently over a lossy communication network, which is an advantage for disadvantaged communities. We build on the architecture to discuss grid coordination notably how tasks such as metering, power resource allocation, forecasting, and scheduling can be handled. All four tasks are managed by a feedback control loop that monitors the performance and behaviour of the micro-grid, and based on historical data makes decisions to ensure the smooth operation of the grid. Finally, since lossy networks are undependable, differentiating system failures from adversarial manipulations is an important consideration for grid stability. We therefore provide a characterisation of potential adversarial models and discuss possible mitigation measures.
Anne V. D. M. Kayem, Christoph Meinel, Stephen D. Wolthusen

Chapter 6. The Design and Classification of Cheating Attacks on Power Marketing Schemes in Resource Constrained Smart Micro-Grids

In this chapter, we provide a framework to specify how cheating attacks can be conducted successfully on power marketing schemes in resource constrained smart micro-grids. This is an important problem because such cheating attacks can destabilise and in the worst case result in a breakdown of the micro-grid. We consider three aspects, in relation to modelling cheating attacks on power auctioning schemes. First, we aim to specify exactly how in spite of the resource constrained character of the micro-grid, cheating can be conducted successfully. Second, we consider how mitigations can be modelled to prevent cheating, and third, we discuss methods of maintaining grid stability and reliability even in the presence of cheating attacks. We use an Automated-Cheating-Attack (ACA) conception to build a taxonomy of cheating attacks based on the idea of adversarial acquisition of surplus energy. Adversarial acquisitions of surplus energy allow malicious users to pay less for access to more power than the quota allowed for the price paid. The impact on honest users, is the lack of an adequate supply of energy to meet power demand requests. We conclude with a discussion of the performance overhead of provoking, detecting, and mitigating such attacks efficiently.
Anesu M.  C. Marufu, Anne V. D. M. Kayem, Stephen D. Wolthusen

Chapter 7. Inferring Private User Behaviour Based on Information Leakage

In rural/remote areas, resource constrained smart micro-grid (RCSMG) architectures can provide a cost-effective power supply alternative in cases when connectivity to the national power grid is impeded by factors such as load shedding. RCSMG architectures can be designed to handle communications over a distributed lossy network in order to minimise operation costs. However, due to the unreliable nature of lossy networks communication data can be distorted by noise additions that alter the veracity of the data. In this chapter, we consider cases in which an adversary who is internal to the RCSMG, deliberately distorts communicated data to gain an unfair advantage over the RCSMG’s users. The adversary’s goal is to mask malicious data manipulations as distortions due to additive noise due to communication channel unreliability. Distinguishing malicious data distortions from benign distortions is important in ensuring trustworthiness of the RCSMG. Perturbation data anonymisation algorithms can be used to alter transmitted data to ensure that adversarial manipulation of the data reveals no information that the adversary can take advantage of. However, because existing data perturbation anonymisation algorithms operate by using additive noise to anonymise data, using these algorithms in the RCSMG context is challenging. This is due to the fact that distinguishing benign noise additions from malicious noise additions is a difficult problem. In this chapter, we present a brief survey of cases of privacy violations due to inferences drawn from observed power consumption patterns in RCSMGs centred on inference, and propose a method of mitigating these risks. The lesson here is that while RCSMGs give users more control over power management and distribution, good anonymisation is essential to protecting personal information on RCSMGs.
Pacome L. Ambassa, Anne V. D. M. Kayem, Stephen D. Wolthusen, Christoph Meinel


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