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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the design and development of an Internet of Things (IoT) enabled, smart sensor to detect nitrate contamination in natural water. It considers three different sensors designed, fabricated and configured for nitrate detection: a Graphite/PDMS and Si-based MEMS sensors, and aFR4-based sensor. It also introduces a selective polymer material developed by means of the ion imprinting polymerization technique that was used as a coating on the Si-based MEMS sensor. Further, the book discusses the development of a smart sensing system that can be used to remotely monitor the nitrate concentration in any water. Fully explaining all the techniques used, the book is of interest to engineers, researchers and scientists working in the field of the water-quality measurement.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Nitrogen is the most common natural element in the atmosphere, being nearly 80% of the air we breathe. Nitrogen can be found in gaseous form in the air, such as Nitrogen (N2), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Ammonia (NH3). Some of these gases react with rainwater and produce nitrate and ammonium ions, which can become part of the soil layer, or mix with groundwater in solution. Intake of the nitrate ion has several positive aspects for the human body, such as improved blood flow, reducing blood pressure, and cardio-vaso-protective effects. However, adverse effects can occur to the human body with an excessive intake of nitrate ions, especially through drinking water, such as gastric, cancer and Parkinson’s diseases. Infants can suffer “blue baby syndrome” or methemoglobinemia which reduces the oxygen content of the blood. It affects those infants who are less than six months old.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 2. Literature Review

Abstract
There are various detection methods are available for nitrate detection in water. Some of them are laboratory-based methods, some can perform in situ measurement. Some of the detection methods are conventional, some of them are non-conventional methods. All the detection methods are some advantages and drawbacks. The price of the detection methods are also important and needs to consider during measurement. This chapter discusses all the available methods and their characteristics in terms of advantages, limit of detections, detection methods, drawbacks, cost and important features.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 3. Interdigitated Senor and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

Abstract
This objective of this chapter is to explain the operating principle of the sensors in terms of their electrical behaviour. It also displays the phenomenon of impedance spectroscopy used to characterise the sensor and material under test (MUT). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used as the measurement tool for the developed prototypes to determine the nitrate in water.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 4. Temperature Compensation for Low Concentration Nitrate Measurement

Abstract
This chapter explains the design and development of a portable sensing system that could be used in situ to detect the concentrations of nitrate present in the groundwater.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 5. Graphite/PDMS Capacitive Sensor for Nitrate Measurement

Abstract
This chapter describes the fabrication and implementation of the second type of sensor patches developed from Aluminium (Al) and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). One distinct difference between the structure of these sensor patches is their formation from a single raw material.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 6. Preparation and Characterization of the Selectivity Material of Nitrate Sensor

Abstract
The previous chapters explained two different sensors for nitrate detection. One sensor was a MEMS sensor, and another one was a Graphite/PDMS printed sensor.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 7. IoT Enabled Smart Sensing System

Abstract
Monitoring the nitrate concentration in the field is an excellent ability for a water-monitoring study. An Interdigital FR4-based capacitive sensor is characterised by nitrate concentration and reported in this chapter. The concentration range of nitrate is 0–40 ppm (mg/L). Different unknown samples were collected from various sources for measurement, and standard UV-Spectrometry was used for validation.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 8. Conclusion and Future Work

Abstract
Regular measurement of nitrate is critical to keep the water safe for all purposes. In this book, it is discussed about IoT enabled smart sensors and sensing system which were developed to measure nitrate concentration in water. The sensing system can be installed any sampling locations, and the system can measure the nitrate concentration and transfer it to the cloud server for further analysis. The purpose of this book can be concluded in the following manner.
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
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