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2014 | Buch

Smart Organizations and Smart Artifacts

Fostering Interaction Between People, Technologies and Processes


Über dieses Buch

This book offers a multidisciplinary strategy for finding new and more effective human-computer interaction approaches, in particular from a socio-technical perspective, that facilitate the exploration and exploitation of benefits that information technologies (IT) offer organizations. Though the relationship between IT and organizations is certainly very strong, it is also one of the greatest obstacles to securing benefits from their interaction. The participation of organizational users in the planning and design stages of IT interfaces is the main area of human-computer interaction, where a wealth of contributions are positively enriching both the academic and management discussions. Thus, a new approach for managing this relationship is needed, one in which the different stakeholders are suitably taken into account. Moreover, the outstanding success of the 2.0 phenomenon offers an example of a relevant platform where human-computer interaction has been widely developed and exploited. Consequently, this will influence and already is influencing – the way IT and users interact with each other. The book is based on a selection of the best papers – original, double blind peer-reviewed contributions – from the annual conference of the Italian chapter of the AIS, held in Milan, Italy in December 2013.


Composing and Orchestrating the Smart Artifacts: Technological and Organizational Challenges
The 2013 ItAIS tenth Conference, from which this book is originated, has taken place as pre-event of the ICIS 2013 that was held in Italy for first time. The 2013 ItAIS has attracted contributions far beyond the Italian IS community.
Leonardo Caporarello, Beniamino Di Martino, Marcello Martinez
DDGS Affordances for Value Creation
The world is changing, and is changing thanks to the data. New opportunities for business action and service creation are emerging from the massive availability of real-time digital data. We characterize these opportunities proposing a framework rooted in the Technology Affordance theory studying the dynamic interactions between people and organizations, and the technological artifact. This approach provided encouraging results in understanding the dynamic nature of IT based innovation.
Claudio Vitari, Federico Pigni
The Role of IT in Organizational Networks, Individual Networks, and in Bridging These Two Levels
In this paper, we seek to understand the role of technology at the nexus between the two network levels: as outcome of the decision process at the organizational level and as object of use and performance at the individual level. We aim to capture the role of IT in bridging the individual practices in the context of the larger network system [22]. To do so, we draw on a longitudinal case study of the development and diffusion of a software for the operation and management of nursing homes.
Andrea Carugati, Lapo Mola, Antonio Giangreco
Corporate Customership: The Core Components of the Relationship Between Firm and Customer
Past research developed a new theoretical framework, named Corporate Customership, that specifies the link between three fields most concerned with innovation: corporate entrepreneurship (CE), IT value-co-creation and user-centered innovation (DI). At the goal of this article is to clarify the core components of the relationship between firm and customer and deepen the basic dimensions of this new theoretical framework, in order to build up the defining aspects and boundaries of Corporate Customership, its context and form, and identifying possible developments for further research.
Enrico Angioni, Francesca Cabiddu
EmergenSYS: Mobile Technologies as Support for Emergency Management
Emergency response is a critical phase of the Emergency Management (EM) process. EM operators have to deal with several difficulties such as easily communicating with victims and witness and retrieving information as accurate as possible. The emergency response can be defined as the result of the negotiation between common citizens and EM operators. Information technologies and particularly the web 2.0 open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ knowledge in the EM process. This approach not only can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events but also will contribute to build resilient communities aware of risks and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with disasters. In this paper we present a set of mobile tools designed to support the negotiation between common citizens and EM operators. Such tools can guide citizens in gathering effective information and keeping them informed with personalized information about the emergency.
Teresa Onorati, Ignacio Aedo, Marco Romano, Paloma Díaz
The Economic and Legal Perspectives of Cloud Computing in Italian Public Administration and a Roadmap to the Adoption of g-Cloud in Italy
Cloud computing has reached a high level of adoption worldwide. In Italy, the adoption of Cloud Computing for the Public Administration is still far from the European and American best practices due to infrastructural, economic, legal and organisational culture reasons. The Italian Public Administration is facing enormous challenges in order to build a long term strategy capable of delivering the benefits required from the government and citizens, evaluating and reducing the potential regulatory, economic and environmental risks. The new emerging paradigm of the Public Administration, that many authors called as “g-Cloud”, should be implemented and managed through a common and coherent strategy. Starting from a comparative analysis of the g-Cloud state of the art in Europe and in America, the objective of the paper is to provide a roadmap showing the future steps needed for the adoption of g-Cloud in Italy, by analyzing the main economic and legal perspectives of Cloud Computing for the Italian Government and Public Administration.
Francesca Spagnoli, Carlo Amendola, Francesco Crenca
Virtual Organization in the Cloud: The Case of a Web Self-Service Portal
The interpretation of organizations like dynamic entities imposes some fundamental challenges for today managers. Firms have not derived value simply by linking IT to their business processes: they have learned how to benefit from IT by developing a competency in creating and evolving an enterprise in IT architecture, able to identify and implement the organization’s strategic objectives. Some providers that operate in the Cloud market have faced this challenge by developing their infrastructure as a virtual platform, which are useful to reach economies of scale and to support innovation at the same time. This work, through the analysis of a successful case, is aimed to point out the organizational characteristic of a Cloud self-service portal, and its coherence with the main business drivers of Cloud market.
Roberto Candiotto, Silvia Gandini
An Overview of Approaches for the Migration of Applications to the Cloud
Cloud computing represents one of the most promising paradigms for software development nowadays. Many companies consider moving entire applications or parts of them to the cloud. As customers transition their applications and data to the cloud, it is important that the level of service provided in the cloud environment be equal to or better than the service provided by their traditional IT environment. The transition to cloud computing, however, still implies difficult and cumbersome efforts. Recently a lot of initiatives, defining approach to support the migration of application to the cloud, have emerged. In this paper we propose an overview of these approaches taking into account advantages and disadvantages of adopting them.
Giuseppina Cretella, Beniamino Di Martino
Digital Information Asset Evaluation: Characteristics and Dimensions
Information growth makes the understanding of the value of digital information assets a key issue to information systems management. To this end, the paper discusses the results of the reconstruction of a multidisciplinary literature, addressing information value or some of the related concepts or drivers. The analysis allows identifying characteristics and dimensions relevant to digital information asset evaluation. In particular, information capacity results as a core characteristic of information value, encompassing information quality, information structure, information infrastructure, and information diffusion.
Gianluigi Viscusi, Carlo Batini
Key Capabilities of CIOs and IT Managers for Strategic Competitive Advantage: A Qualitative Field Research
A growing stream of studies is concentrating on IT management value, i.e. on how value is created not (only) through IT investment and deployment, but (also, or mainly) through the way IT is idiosyncratically managed by each specific organization. This implies that the capabilities, behaviors and organizational role of CIOs and IT managers could be crucial for the creation of strategic value. Our research question is then the following: in the emerging scenario, shaped by e-business and cloud computing, how can the IT manager’s capabilities, behaviors and organizational role influence the generation of competitive advantage? To answer this question, we conducted an explorative study based on interviews to nine managers from as many Italian organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed through coding. We found that the CIO is perceived as bound to change towards more hybridized roles, whilst the IT department structure is perceived as evolving towards a much deeper cooperation with external partners and with other departments of the organization; this may imply, for example, a matrix organizational re-design. Moreover, our interviews led to the identification of 15 features of the CIO/IT manager, that are perceived as important or crucial for the generation of competitive advantage. Most of these features imply outstanding relational capabilities on the part of the IT managers.
Cecilia Rossignoli, Alessandro Zardini, Francesca Ricciardi
The Development of the DDG-Capability in Firms: An Evaluation of Its Impact on Firm Financial Performance
We examine whether firms that develop the Digital Data Genesis dynamic capability show higher performance. Using detailed survey data on the capabilities developed by companies by the usage of digital data and firm financial performance of 96 firms, we find that the firms that develop the DDG dynamic capability have levels of ROA, ROS and revenue growth higher than others do. Our results provide one of the first empirical evidence on the direct link between DDG dynamic capability and firm financial performance.
Elisabetta Raguseo, Claudio Vitari
Ideas Sharing Through ICT in Innovation Processes: A Design Theory for Open Innovation Platforms
Since Henry Chesbrough’s remark on the importance of opening innovation processes to the cooperation of external entities, like partners, competitors or customers, open innovation (OI) gained momentum. Open innovation approach was started and run by different companies around the world. Meanwhile specific platforms were developed to support these processes, either by intermediaries aimed at helping companies to shift to an open innovation approach, or by firms which decided to adopt this approach trough their own created and managed platforms. Through a descriptive design theory perspective the paper analyzes the features (components) that these web-based platforms offer in respect to the requirements they have to fulfill in order to effectively support the open innovation approach.
Barbara Aquilani, Tindara Abbate, Alessio Maria Braccini
Delivering Knowledge to the Mobile Enterprise Implementation Solutions for a Mobile Business Intelligence
Almost all large companies analyze their performances through KPIs that are processed by Business Intelligence (BI) systems. Specifically, BI is a critical supporting system in service industry where even a little improvement in efficiency allows you to win the competition. It implies a continuous research of excellence in BI, exploiting all technologies supporting the whole information life cycle—collection, processing and distribution. Specifically, within information distribution, mobile devices have increased BI usability, since decision makers can track performance whenever (at any time) and wherever (they do not need to sit at their desk). This paper also illustrates the implementation of a mobile BI system in a customer care company. Our system uses a service-oriented architecture to integrate existing BI systems and our framework allows delivering a cross-platform mobile application to end users. Finally, we summarize the benefits given by a mobile BI solution in small and medium enterprises.
Gianmario Motta, Tianyi Ma, Linlin You, Daniele Sacco
Software Agents for Collaborating Smart Solar-Powered Micro-Grids
Solar electricity is one of the options as innovative approach as primary energy use. It could be deployed decentralised into the urban areas, and could alleviate the carbonised electricity demand drastically. Information and communication technologies (ICT) could be exploited to provide real time information on energy consumption in a home or a building giving the possibility to citizens to take decisions in order to save energy. In this context CoSSMic, an ICT European project, aims at fostering a higher rate of self-consumption of decentralised renewable energy production by innovative autonomic systems for management and control of power micro-grids on users behalf. The paper addresses these challenges and discusses related work dealing with the development of an ICT solution using software agents which collaborate in a neighborhood, and with the central power grid, over a peer-to-peer overlay.
Alba Amato, Rocco Aversa, Beniamino Di Martino, Marco Scialdone, Salvatore Venticinque, Svein Hallsteinsen, Geir Horn
AutoMyDe: A Detector for Pupil Dilation in Cognitive Load Measurement
Pupil dilation is known to reflect the emotional arousal. Pleasure, effort and fear are examples of stimuli inducing the nervous system to cause dilation mydriasis. The work proposes a tool to automatically quantify the mydriasis in order to evaluate mental effort in HCI. The system uses a feature-based approach and monitors the pupil behavior during a given task. As mydriasis is entailed by various reasons, our system distinguishes the cause-effect relationships by synchronizing monitoring and test, dividing the monitoring in fixed intervals and retrieving a survey of the mydriatic events for each determined period of time. We present a case of study analyzing users resolving arithmetical tasks, viewing pictures and using a mobile application. In each scenario, tests intend to impose gradually increasing reactions to the users. The paper will present different techniques for pupil dilation measurements and related results of mental effort evaluation.
Davide Maria Calandra, Francesco Cutugno
Providing a Method for Supporting the Decision Making About a Meaningful XBRL Implementation According to the Specific Situation of an Organization
XBRL is in an increasing number of countries defined as the obligate format for the transmission of financial data to authorities by legal requirements. The legal requirement itself refers solely to the transmission of the information in XBRL format. How a formatting of a company’s report becomes realized is not regulated. This decision has to be done by the decision makers of the affected companies. There is no generally recommended realization or global valid implementation process. Each realization (bolt-on, built-in, and embedded) comprises a specific realization effort and offers different potential benefits for the implementing organization. Therefore, it is necessary to decide about the integration depth within an organization. The paper presents a methodology to support the decision process for the adoption of XBRL into the organization. By doing design science research, the constructed artifact enables a structured decision based on facts, individual properties, and needs of the organization.
Claudia Koschtial, Carsten Felden, Bruno Maria Franceschetti
A Knowledge Management Strategy to Identify an Expert in Enterprise
The aim of this paper is to define a strategy to identify, manage and take advantage of competences in the enterprise via figures of opportune experts, with consequent advantages for workers and users in terms of problem solving. In such a context, industrial aspects, such as resources localization, research time and accessibility to the organizational hierarchy and the work load, are also considered. This allows to distinguish three different phases in finding the experts: Initialization, in which a score is assigned to workers on the base of competence levels; Propagation, where the search accuracy is improved using trust and closeness measures; Localization, where updates of scores are made in terms of social and geographical positions of users/enterprises and experts. The three phases allows to identify inside an enterprise the expert, who has the best competence and is close to the resource, that is in the shortest delay possible.
Matteo Gaeta, Rossella Piscopo, Luigi Rarità, Luigi Trevisant, Daniele Novi
User Evaluation Support Through Development Environment for Agile Software Teams
User evaluation is generally performed early in the development process to reveal usability problems, design flaws, and errors and correct them before deploying. Due to the short iterations of agile development, implementing user evaluation as part of the development process is a challenge that is often neglected. In a previous work, we proposed an approach that would enable the integration of user evaluation throughout the development process, by managing and automating user evaluation activities from with the integrated development environment (IDE). In this work, we focus on a case study in which small-sized agile software teams, made up of students in an annual software engineering project course, applied our integrated user evaluation approach for developing their software projects. The feedbacks from these agile teams show the intuitiveness and effectiveness of our integration approach.
Shah Rukh Humayoun, Yael Dubinsky, Tiziana Catarci
“Each to His Own”: Distinguishing Activities, Roles and Artifacts in EUD Practices
End-User Development (EUD) studies how to empower end users (among which, e.g., professionals and organizational workers) to modify, adapt and extend the software systems they daily use, thus coping with the evolving needs of their work organizations and the shop-floor environment. This research area is becoming increasingly important also for the cross fertilization of ideas and approaches that come from the fields of Information Systems and Human-Computer Interaction. However, if one considers the variety of research proposals stemming from this common ground, there is the risk of losing denotational precision of the key terms adopted in the common vocabulary of EUD. To counteract this natural semantic drift, the objective of this paper is to distinguish within three EUD complementary important notions, namely activities, roles, and artifacts, in order to help researchers deepen important phenomena regarding the “meta-design” of systems built to support EUD practices.
Federico Cabitza, Daniela Fogli, Antonio Piccinno
Understanding User Visiting Behavior and Web Design: Applying Simultaneous Choice Model to Content Arrangement
A common problem encountered in web design is how to arrange content on the homepage of a website. This paper uses a random-utility theory in studying visitors’ choice behaviors to optimize web design. Classical discrete choice models are not suitable. A total of six multiple-choice demand models are proposed in this paper. These models are applied to web log file data collected from an educational institute over a seven and a half month period, and the parameters are estimated consistently across all models. The best model based on the forecasting accuracy rate is selected as the tool for resolving the problem of web design. Two metrics, utility loss and compensating time, are constructed using the selected utility model to facilitate web design. Empirical results show that the proposed metrics are highly efficient to develop web design to resolve the problem of how to allocate the information resources of a website, and the algorithms can also be utilized to assist the study of the feasibility of introducing a new function in a website.
Lianlian Song, Geoffrey Tso, Zhiyong Liu, Qian Chen
Socio-Technical Toolbox for Business Analysis in Practice
Socio-technical methods advocate a human-focus analysis that reflects on social and technical factors in the design of organizational systems. The aim of this paper is to report on the experiences of a ST toolbox use in practice by 36 companies. Our findings show that the use of ST toolbox improves companies’ understanding of their job practices and enhance their learning about their business sustainability. These experiences of improvements are not dependent on the sector or the size of the visited companies and confirm the perceived usefulness and relevance of ST analysis in practice.
Peter Bednar, Moufida Sadok, Vasilena Shiderova
Guidelines for User Driven Service and E-Service Innovations
The purpose of this article is to provide a set of guidelines consisting of tools and steps to be used to design service innovations by involving the users. The guidelines are based on an understanding of the service development process as a linear stage process as described by Alam [5] and user roles as described by Nambisan [15]. The tools and steps are illustrated through the way they have been applied to develop and design service and e-service innovations in the case of Roskilde University Library.
Ada Scupola
Engaging “New Users” into Design Activities: The TERENCE Experience with Children
The diffusion of digital technology is bringing new types of users “into the market”, like children, elderly people, or technology illiterate people. Designers and researchers have to face new design challenges having at disposal a lighter and less structured body of knowledge about characteristics and demands of these users, and even consolidated design methods may prove to be inefficient. With respect to these issues, and more specifically with focus on data gathering techniques, in this paper we discuss the experience of the TERENCE project, aimed at developing a technology enhanced learning system for improving text comprehension in children 7–11 years old. In particular, our experience suggests extending the repertoire of inquiry techniques with methods shaped and informed by gamefulness phenomena.
Tania Di Mascio, Rosella Gennari, Alessandra Melonio, Laura Tarantino
User-Centered Design of a Web-Based Platform for the Sustainable Development of Tourism Services in a Living Lab Context
The tourism sector in the Gorenjska region, where outstanding natural, historical and geographical potentials are supported by national and regional policies, still faces many challenges in terms of attracting more tourists for longer periods. We address this problem with an open innovation approach, bringing together tourism service providers, end-users (tourists), information and communication technology providers and policy makers; and with the establishing of a regional tourism living lab, which is a real life environment in which researchers, developers and users are co-creating new products or services. We describe the process and experiences of the user-centered design of the web-based platform for sustainable development of tourism services in a living lab context. The phases of the co-design process of web platform development are described, from idea formation through prototype development, testing, and gathering user feedback through several workshops. The final outcome, the “GoGorenjska” web platform, is presented, and further research is outlined. Based on the feedback from tourism service providers and tourists, we can conclude that the platform itself has vast open innovation potential, providing a critical mass of users in the phase of full production on the market.
Andreja Pucihar, Ana Malešič, Gregor Lenart, Mirjana Kljajić Borštnar
Smart Organizations and Smart Artifacts
herausgegeben von
Leonardo Caporarello
Beniamino Di Martino
Marcello Martinez
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