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Über dieses Buch

The book focuses on the different aspects of sensing technology, i.e. high reliability, adaptability, recalibration, information processing, data fusion, validation and integration of novel and high performance sensors specifically aims to monitor agricultural and environmental parameters.

This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Agricultural and Environmental Monitoring offers to variety of users, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially Agriculture and Environmental engineers. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

An Autonomous Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network for Precision Irrigation in Greenhouses

Abstract
In this work we describe the design of an adaptable decision support system and its integration with a wireless sensor/actuator network (WSAN) to implement zone specific irrigation control in greenhouses via wireless communication. Our research has focused on the provision for proactive applications by deploying sensor networks and connecting sensor data with actuators through an ontology-based decision-making layer. The system developed provides for real-time monitoring and control of both agricultural inputs and outputs (irrigation control). A simple rule editor is also provided through a graphical user interface for the domain-expert to specify the knowledge base.
Christos Goumopoulos

Optical Sensors to Assist Agricultural Crop and Pasture Management

Abstract
Optical sensors offer the opportunity to assess the amount and quality of pasture and crops growing in the field. This is of great importance to farmers as it will allow them to; allocate feed for animals much more accurately than previously possible, and also, design fertiliser and chemical treatments for crops based on the actual crop need calculated through observing the plant. Both of these applications are important as agriculture attempts to satisfy the twin demands for increased production and improved sustainability, requiring efficient resource use. Present methods often involve destructive sampling and removing samples to a laboratory, results often take a number of weeks to produce.
A range of optical sensors have been developed or adapted to sample growing crop in the field. One of the main challenges is to develop robust calibration and validation methodologies for this group of technologies. The target crops and pastures are variable both spatially and temporally, increasing the challenge. A range of statistical approaches have been developed.
Basic two channel VIS/NIR sensors are capable of estimating biomass, a three channel sensor will give additional information and estimate crude protein, while a 16 channel sensor is capable of determining crop and pasture nutritive parameters with moderate accuracy. Hyperspectral sensing although more complex, does give an improved level of accuracy in determining these nutritive parameters. This is a significant step forward for farmers enabling them to measure and manage their pasture and crop to a much higher level of precision than previously possible.
Ian Yule, Reddy Pullanagari

Design, Implementation, and Testing of an M2M-Based Remote Agroecological Monitoring System for Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel)

Abstract
Field monitoring is always an important issue in modern agricultural management and therefore an efficient, automatic system for environmental data collection is needed. An ideal system for this purpose should be able to record long-term and up-to-the-minute environmental fluctuations. In this paper, we report a remote pest monitoring system which was newly designed with large-scale, long-distance, long-term, and real-time agricultural information collection capabilities. The proposed system was built upon wireless sensor network (WSN). The system consists of three major components: a network of wireless automatic counting traps (WACTs), a remote monitoring platform (RMP), and a host control platform (HCP). WACTs transmit environmental data to RMP through a WSN. The RMP packages all data sent by WACTs into an SMS message, and delivers this message to HCP by using a Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) module. Users can search all historical sensing data from HCP and a website. The proposed system has been tested in the field since August 2008, and the data transmitted from the monitored field has demonstrated that the system is capable of monitoring environmental parameters and population dynamics of the Oriental fruit fly in real-time. The data collected by the proposed system offers useful information to researchers to analyze the relationship between the population dynamics of the fruit fly and the environmental parameters. Based on the analysis, we believe that a better operation decision can be made in pest monitoring and management.
Joe-Air Jiang, Cheng-Long Chuang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, En-Cheng Yang

Analysis of Moisture Content, Total Oil and Fatty Acid Composition by NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy: A Review

Abstract
Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important analytical technique in the field of food and agriculture. It is quicker and easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals such as acids or hydroxides. However, in earlier times, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. Thanks to the development of new soft ware packages for use with NIR instruments, NIR techniques could be used in the analysis of intact grains and seeds. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, they were found to be unsuitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. In this chapter, principles of NIR Reflectance spectroscopy were reviewed, in particular reference to the water and oil bands. Also presented are some recent applications of NIR for the rapid and nondestructive measurement of moisture and total oil contents in shelled and in-shell peanuts. Applicability, and limitations of NIR reflectance method in the analysis of fatty acid composition of different varieties of peanuts while they are in their shells was also discussed. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the water and total oil content, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in the grading process of grains and nuts.
Chari V. Kandala, Jaya Sundaram, Naveen Puppala

Greenhouse Environment: Air and Water Monitoring

Abstract
Together with light and soil, air and water quality control are fundamental to the productivity and quality of greenhouse grown products. But control implies monitoring, i.e. measuring the physical, chemical and biology parameters used to access quality.
The chapter presents solutions for air and water quality monitoring that can be used in greenhouses.
Octavian Postolache, José Miguel Pereira, Pedro Silva Girão, António Almeida Monteiro

The Effect of Temperature Factor on the Detection of Nitrate Based on Planar Electromagnetic Sensor and Independent Component Analysis

Abstract
In this paper, the output parameters of the planar electromagnetic sensor have observed with different kind of water samples at different concentrations. The output parameters have been derived and tested to be incorporated with independent component analysis (ICA) and as inputs for an analysis model. The analysis model targeted to estimate the amount of nitrate contamination in water samples with the assistance of ICA based on FastICAfixed point algorithm under the contrast functions of pow3 and tanh. Nitrates sample in the form of ammonium nitrates (NH4NO3), each of different concentration between 5 mg and 20 mg dissolved in 1 litre of deionized water (mili-q) was used as one of the main references. A model based on independent component analysis was developed to estimate nitrate contamination in natural water source. The model was tested with two sets of mixed NH4NO3 and (NH4)2HPO4 water samples based on Manawatu river water. From the results, the model can acceptably detect the presence of nitrate in Manawatu River and capable of distinguishing the concentration level in the presence of other type of contamination. Furthermore, the effect of temperature change was also observed in this study. The system and approach presented in this paper has the potential to be used as a useful tool for water sources monitoring.
M. A. Md Yunus, S. C. Mukhopadhyay, Amal Punchihewa, Sallehuddin Ibrahim

Latent Variable Models in the Understanding of Animal Monitoring Data

Abstract
This paper looks at techniques in the field of machine learning that can be employed to aid the interpretation of intensively gathered sensor data from domestic livestock. Given the high levels of reliability afforded through improved battery technology and progressively more powerful small computing devices, condition monitoring on such scales has become widespread but at the expense of the understanding of the relation to the welfare condition that underlies the quantities being measured. Latent class models offer a means of postulating the existence of an abstraction or category label for a given set of observations. In this chapter the additional understanding that 3 progressively sophisticated models can offer in the interpretation of a set of GIS data gathered from a herd of 15 beef cows is explored. The conclusion comprises a review of practical applications where these models may assist understanding of the potentially complex behavioural relationships between individuals and groups of animals.
Bruce Stephen, Craig Michie, Ivan Andonovic

Wireless Platform for Monitoring of Physiological Parameters of Cattle

Abstract
Monitoring of cattle and their physiological parameters are understood to be important for maximization of milk production, prevention of health problems, nutrition planning etc. Wireless and continuous monitoring of cattle may be one possibility to assess their physiological parameters. Two aspects were investigated in this work: First trials based on state of the art research were conducted concerning monitoring of cows and heartbeat and oxygen saturation were recorded. In the second part commercially available wireless motes are discussed and tested for suitability in animal monitoring, which also includes a transmission distance experiment. Distances between several hundred meters and several km were achieved.
Arne Sieber, Alexandra Nafari, Rainer Konrad, Peter Enoksson, Matthias Wagner

Development of Wireless Sensor Networks for Agricultural Monitoring

Introduction
The concept of precision agriculture has been around for some time now. Blackmore et al., in 1994 [1] defined it as a comprehensive system designed to optimize agricultural production by carefully tailoring soil and crop management to correspond to the unique condition found in each field while maintaining environmental quality. The early adopters during that time found precision agriculture to be unprofitable and the instances in which it was implemented were few and far between. Further, the high initial investment in the form of electronic equipment for sensing and communication meant that only large farms could afford it.
L. Bencini, S. Maddio, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, G. Manes, A. Manes

Autonomous Sensor Platform for Environmental Monitoring Applications

Abstract
This paper presents the development of a versatile sensor platform that is well-suited for autonomous data acquisition in environmental monitoring. The key advantages of the platform are its compact design, implemented onboard sensors, wireless communication and further standard interfaces to connect application specific sensors. The sensor system is subsequently simple to install and the costs for the preparation and execution of a measurement task are low. The paper provides details of the platform design and key characteristics as well as data acquisition-, communication-, and data storage strategy. A practical exemplary application in the field of environmental monitoring - the determination of acceleration of plants due to wind load - is presented.
M. Lieschnegg, A. Fuchs, B. Lechner, O. Mariani

In-Situ Sensing of Surface and Atmospheric Moisture

Abstract
Water is one of the most important materials on the Earth, being necessary for all forms of agriculture and many industrial processes. Water is also a critical element of many crop diseases and the prime cause of corrosion, rot and decay. The monitoring of atmospheric and surface water contributes to the understanding of these adverse effects and can be used to mitigate them. Sensors for both atmospheric and surface moisture have been in use for a long time but it is only recently that miniaturised and cheap sensors have become available so that in-situ, multi-point monitoring of water is feasible.
Alan Wilson, Richard Muscat

Urban Emissions Monitoring at the Vehicle Level

Abstract
Urban emissions have been considered an issue in the UK since as early as the 13th century, when the use of coal was banned in London because of the damaging effects to human health. Despite air quality improving in the last century, the establishment of legislative controls and limits, in addition to developments in sensing technology are helping to reduce further the pollutant levels present in the air. Technological advances, such as the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), and complex computer based tools may allow for both the capturing and analysis of data in order to address the issue of emissions from road transportation systems. This work delves into the possibility of remotely obtaining real-time emissions data at the vehicle level using a combination of WSNs and Geographical Information Systems (GISs). The paper adopts a design science research methodology, discussing the rationale for the novel approach taken and presenting empirical measurements from a vehicle to demonstrate the principle of the work.
L. E. Cordova-Lopez, A. Mason, A. Shaw, A. I. Al-Shamma’a

Acoustic Tracking Dynamic Phenomena in Marine Ecosystem

Abstract
Acoustic information, collected in the form of measurements of integrated echo energies related to time and 3D space has been applied at the Sea Fisheries Institute since 1981 to examine the rough statistical relationships between clupeoids distribution in the Baltic and the relevant environmental factors. In this paper it is shown that the data collected can be also applied for very detail observation of dynamic phenomena in marine ecosystem. Two differentiated case studies were selected to show new acoustic applications in specific areas of oceanographic research. In the first case spatial characteristics of fish diel vertical migration in the southern Baltic was surveyed and analysed for the period 1994-2007, against the environmental background. In the second case acoustic sounding was applied to quantify ebullition of methane from Baltic sediments. Both phenomena are strongly dependent on climatic variability. For both cases the final characteristics of the phenomenon was given in the form of video frames, expressing the processes in time. Unique method of echo-recording transformation into video frames was described and applied to analyse the process of ebullition of methane from the seabed.
Andrzej Orlowski

A Real-Time Monitoring Framework for Landslide and Rock-Collapse Forecasting

Abstract
Rock collapse an landslides represent harmful natural hazards threatening human settlements, transport routes and critical infrastructures in mountain regions. An effective and real-time monitoring action is thus crucial to save human lives by anticipating events. Here, we suggest a real-time monitoring system characterized by a system-of-systems approach in which different monitoring subsystems (each one looking at a different view of the physical phenomenon) coexist within an homogenous framework providing remote data transmission, interpretation, storage and analysis. The wireless segment of the suggested system, here proposed within a rock collapse monitoring application, can be easily extended to address landslides by simply considering additional ad-hoc sensors such as bore-hole inclinometers and piezometers. The system has been succesfully deployed on the Italian section of the Alps.
Cesare Alippi, Romolo Camplani, Antonio Marullo, Manuel Roveri

Applications of Cloud Computing and GIS for Ocean Monitoring through Remote Sensing

Abstract
This chapter focuses on how to monitor marine spills using powerful tools such as remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). On the one hand, remote sensing has been widely used as one of the main ways to periodically monitor large areas, as it allows to obtain data under poor weather conditions and in spite of darkness. We particularly center upon a sensor called “Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar” (ASAR), which is part of the Envisat payload. On the other hand, GIS have emerged in recent years as a set of standards for data organization and representation that allow themanagement of geographic data.We provide a detailed description of the design and implementation of a tool that provides an integrated framework for the detection and localization of marine spills using remote sensing, GIS, and cloud computing. Cloud computing is used because of the enormous amount of data to be processed and the need of communication between users.
Diego Fustes, Diego Cantorna, Carlos Dafonte, Alfonso Iglesias, Bernardino Arcay

Autonomous and Interoperable Smart Sensors for Environmental Monitoring Applications

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomous and interoperable smart sensors that employ the IEEE1451 standardization in pervasive environments. These devices contain a power management submodule based on energy harvesting techniques in order to enlarge their useful lifetime. Low power wireless technologies, such as IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee and 6LoWPAN have been used to determine the interoperability of smart sensors through experimental tests by using Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) architectures. This work establishes a new Finite State Machine (FSM), a compressed transducer electronic data sheets model and a reduced set of IEEE1451 standard commands due to the limits of the present IEEE1451 standard. For tests, the base station is modeled such as gateway, to design the Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP), and the Wireless Transducer Interface Module (WTIM) is an environmental sensor node. The conclusions drawn from this work will be used as guidelines for the implementation of interoperable wireless sensors networks based on autonomous smart sensors for environmental monitoring tasks.
J. Higuera, J. Polo

Performance Optimization of a Fuel Cell by Measuring the Moisture Content in Its Membranes

Abstract
The fuel cell (FC) is a source of energy that help to avoid pollution and thus contribute to solutions for global warming. This kind of battery is well known since many decades but its research for improving their efficiency is still in progress. Such battery could also be used for specific applications for example in agriculture where many devices operate in a limited area such as tractors, pumps, transfer systems treadmills of agricultural products.
One important parameter among others is the diagnostic of their membranes state using real time humidity measurements to improve their efficiency. In this chapter, the basics of FC are first described and their various parameters described. The importance of humidity and its consequences on the efficiency of the FC are also summarized. The different techniques used for measuring the moisture content of the FC with their advantages and disadvantages are also presented before giving the results of measurements performed by our research team at the Nancy University Henri Poincaré.
A. Rouane, M. Nadi, H. Allagui, D. Kourtiche

Backmatter

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