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Über dieses Buch

This book presents select papers from the International Conference on Smart Materials and Techniques for Sustainable Development (SMTS) 2019. The contents focus on a wide range of methods and techniques related to sustainable development fields like smart structures and materials, innovation in water resource development, optical fiber communication, green construction materials, optimization and innovation in structural design, structural dynamics and earthquake engineering, structural health monitoring, nanomaterials, nanotechnology and sensors, smart biomaterials and medical devices, materials for energy conversion and storage devices, and IoT in sustainable development. This book aims to provide up-to-date and authoritative knowledge from both industrial and academic worlds, sharing best practice in the field of smart materials analysis. The contents of this book will be beneficial to students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of smart materials and sustainable development.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Comparative Study of Pedestrian Vibration for Design of Steel Arch Bridge

Crossing over has been the key component in the advancement of the street framework. Although analysts have given numerous important scientific commitments with respect to the comprehension and displaying of passerby prompted vibrations of footbridges, there is yet a need to figure out what genuine upgrades have been accomplished in structure techniques. The extension and scope of arrangement have relied upon the viable misuse of the most efficient materials accessible. This paper introduces the structure and investigation of the bridge using STAAD.Pro software. This article gives a basic diagram of the procedures proposed in the design of steel arch bridge. Focus is set on the improvement of passerby load, the structure rules and vibration countermeasures. Pedestrian vibration using different codes is also done to do a comparative study of vibrations obtained.

Rahul Suresh, A. Sofi, K. Ganesh

Lateral Load Analyses of Multi-storeyed Frames with and Without Shear Walls

Multi-storeyed buildings are popping up more and more in India due to its ever-growing need for accommodation as opposed to its subsequent lack of land area. It is a known fact that as the height of the structure increases, lateral loads become a crucial part of the design. Shear walls are among one of the most common, cheap and effective methods by which lateral loads are resisted. In this paper, a study is made on multi-storeyed buildings of a symmetric plan with shear walls provided at multiple locations across the plan. The total length and thickness of walls were kept constant throughout all cases. Straight walls and L-shaped R.C.C. walls were made use of. Linear static, linear dynamic and non-linear static analyses were performed. Comparisons were made based on roof-level displacement, drift, stiffness of structure and ductility to find the best-performing configuration.

Akash John Koshy, A. Sofi, A. R. Santhakumar

The Diagnosis for the Lack of Remote Village Electrification Using Sustainable Energy in Labranzagrande

This paper focuses on the analysis of electrification prospects for a remote village in Colombia. The main goal is to define the best sizing of a hybrid power plant to serve the microgrid with renewable energy resources like solar, wind, hydro, etc. The yearly average of energy potential and load consumption is the main requirement. In spite of the extension of coverage in electrification in the mentioned sectors, these have never been included in any project which contributes to accentuate the conditions of poverty. This paper is a case study of the rural area of the municipality of Labranzagrande, which does not have an energy service. Adding to this problem, its location is in the so-called isolated areas. The proposed solution to the lack of energy in homes can also be applicable for schools in whose classrooms there is no service either.

Alan Achenkunju John, P. Venkatesh Kumar

Experimental Studies on the Suitability of Coconut Shell as a Filler Material in Concrete Cubes

Globally, the consumption of concrete is raising high. The production of cement raises the carbon footprint and causes depletion of non-renewable resources. Researchers are formulating new technologies to save the resources, energy for the next generations, to reduce disposal problems and to make the product or structure economical. For this purpose, recycled waste and treated natural materials, etc., are used as a substitute for cement, aggregates, or reinforcement. This paper presents studies conducted to analyze the performance of a coconut shell as a filler. The material used in the present study was naturally available, cost-free, and non-toxic material. The strength performance of different concrete cube specimens with coconut shells in their different orientations was assessed by conducting compressive strength tests. From the results, the effective position and orientation of the shell in the concrete cube were found out.

Renuka Sai Gadekari, Sreevalsa Kolatayar, Rajesh Kumar Chitrachedu

A Sustainable Approach to Turn Plastic Waste into Useful Construction Blocks

The world economy is surging and newer technologies are evolving with the time. The construction sector is about to undergo a huge transformational change. The people of the world are looking forward to residing in houses made of sustainable materials. The people are concerned about increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The cement production is accompanied by huge greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, waste plastics are becoming a nightmare for the people residing in developed and underdeveloped countries, as the waste management becomes difficult in those places. This research discusses a potential solution to address the above-stated issues of concern, i.e., plastic waste into construction blocks with lower cost and rapid construction phases. A study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of using LDPE (Low-Density Polyethylene), (major sources of waste and least recycled plastic) with waste materials like bottom ash, copper slag, and ceramic in different proportions to create blocks. This study compares the mechanical properties of different mix proportions of raw materials to find an optimum composition. This paper also investigates the pre-eminence of the newly developed composite block over the conventional brick in terms of economic viability, environmental sustainability, and construction superiority.

K. Monish, J. John Jesuran, Sreevalsa Kolathayar

Study on Mechanical Properties of M30 Grade Concrete with Replacement of Cement by Wollastonite

This paper reports effect of concrete using replacement such as wollastonite powder for cement. In the project work, the concrete grade of M30 was selected, and IS method was used for mix design. The properties of material for cement, wollastonite powder and coarse aggregate were studied for mix design. The various strengths of concrete like compressive strength and split tensile strength were studied for replacements of cement using wollastonite powder. The mix proportion has been taken as 1:1.65:2.92.

D. Saranyadevi, P. Sabareeswaran, P. Paramaguru, M. Surya Prakash

Flexural Behaviour of Auxetic Core Sandwich Beam

Auxetic is a material or a structure which has gained popularity due to its enhanced properties; they are widely used in the field of biomedical, aerospace, automotive, military and textile industry. They exhibit negative Poisson’s ratio, that is, unlike unconventional materials, they become wider when uniaxially stretched and thinner when uniaxially compressed. They exhibit enhancement in physical properties like vibration absorption, shear resistance, indentation resistance, fracture resistance and lower fatigue crack propagation. In this paper, a 3D unit cell was numerically modelled to evaluate the auxetic behaviour, and parametric analysis was done to evaluate the performance of different designs of unit cell, and it was compared with the equivalent monolithic one. Various design parameters considered were the height of the vertical connecting strut and the centre and radius of the curved strut of the core. It was found that a curved strut core shows auxetic behaviour, and as the distance of the centre of the curved strut increases, the deflection of the unit cell increased. This 3D unit cell was then numerically modelled to sandwich beam with auxetic core subjected to three-point bending. The behaviour of the structure was studied numerically using Abaqus/CAE 6.14.

Ruby Vaguez, Simon Jayasingh

Correlation Between Surface Absorption and Chloride Ion Penetration of Concrete with Nano Silica

Durability of concrete is greatly affected by water absorption and its transportation. A less permeable concrete is more durable. Nano Silica (NS) when added to concrete can perform as a filler material and also participate in pozzolanic reaction to improve the density of concrete. In this investigation, concrete samples were made by adding NS to concrete. The compressive strength increased with increase in NS content up to 1.5%. Ultrasonic pulse velocity test showed improvement in concrete’s density with increase in NS content. Sorptivity test demonstrated the reduction of surface absorption with increase in NS. Reduced chloride ion penetration was also prominent during Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT). Relation between water absorption and current passed was found, and using this relation, prediction chart and formula were proposed.

R. Vandhiyan, E. B. Perumal Pillai, S. Lingeswari

Prediction of Setting Time and Strength of Mortar Using Soft Computing Technique

Soft computing techniques, i.e., linear regression, artificial neural network, genetic expression programming, etc., are being practiced for the prediction of data. In this study, artificial neural network model predicted the consistency, setting time, and compressive strength of mortar at various curing time. The eighteen distinct mix proportions of cement mortar consisting of accelerators, i.e., calcium nitrate and triethanolamine as additives and stone powder as replacement of cement were selected for the prediction of various parameters. The accelerators are used to fasten the stiffening of cementitious materials and speed up the construction work. Stone powder was used to minimize the consumption of cement and problems associated with waste to the ecosystem. The laboratory data set was used for the prediction model. The appropriate artificial neural network model constitutes mix constituents as input parameters, i.e., cement, sand, water, and additional materials. The results from ANN training in multilayer feedforward neural network were evaluated and compared with the experimental results. A graphical representation between predicted and experimental results was also drawn. Results showed that artificial neural network technique was found effective for the prediction of various parameters of cement mortar with high correlation coefficients and low values of mean absolute error and root mean squared error.

Kiran Devi, Babita Saini, Paratibha Aggarwal

A Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Monoblock Concrete Sleepers Using SAP2000

A high-speed train is one which often operates at a speed above 200 kmph (125 mph). High-speed trains bring about new challenges in the construction of strong railway roadbeds so as to protect mechanical components of trains and track structures from damage, to improve the comfort of riding for passengers and to reduce ground vibration and noise pollution. While designing railway tracks, irregularities of the wheels and rails must be accounted for, as they may induce considerable dynamic loads. For a track structure, the most important part is a concrete sleeper. There is a continuous need for the improvement in the analytical tools for the dynamic analysis of the concrete sleepers. A 3D FEM model of the concrete sleeper is developed in SAP2000 version 18.0 software considering two conditions, that is, when sleeper is placed on-site without any constraints and when it is placed on ballast. The results obtained are finally validated with the previously done work on STRAND7 software by comparing their mode shapes.

P. S. Rao, A. K. Desai, C. H. Solanki

Spatial Machines for Heterogeneous MRI Data—A Critical Review

Biomedical Engineering enables better quality of life to the medical conditions of people. Magnetic Field Applications in biological aspects and manipulations of tissue engineering sorted out the diagnostic solutions. MRI has become the potential emerging tool to gain capabilities to overcome obstacles of biomedical field. The Combination of Image Processing in MRI with the ability to produce targets, presents a disruptive technology which affects the criticality of healthcare.

Zabiha Khan, R. Loganathan

Influence of Fineness of Mineral Admixtures on the Degree of Atmospheric Mineral Carbonation

Global carbon dioxide concentration is rising at the rate of 2 ppm every year, which had led to the demand of sustainable development. In construction industry, manufacturing of cement is the main source of global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon capture and storage is a recent technology which had helped to sequester carbon dioxide from atmosphere and thus helps in reducing the greenhouse effect to a certain extent. This study mainly focuses on the atmospheric mineral carbonation of mineral admixtures like fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), and silica fume (SF), which are the industrial by-products and are being treated as waste. This study also focuses on the effect of fineness of different mineral admixtures on the degree of atmospheric mineral carbonation. Fly ash with three different levels of fineness (FA, FA I, and FA II), GGBS with three different levels of fineness (GGBS, GGBS I, and GGBS II), and silica fume were mixed with activators like lime and gypsum and were left for atmospheric mineral carbonation. Mineralogical characterisations were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Degree of carbonation of the samples was analyzed and calculated using the TGA results. From the comparative analysis of all the samples, it was found that GGBS II had highest degree of carbonation. It was also observed that calcium-based compounds like calcite, aragonite, vaterite, calcite magnesium syn, gismondine, waikarite, calcium silicate hydrate, diopside, calcium sulfate, and portlandite were formed in the samples after 45 and 90 days of atmospheric mineral carbonation. However, it was observed that with increasing levels of fineness of mineral admixtures, there was no significant change in the degree of atmospheric mineral carbonation.

C. Farsana, Bibhuti Bhusan Das, K. Snehal

Experimental Setup for Thermal Performance Study of Phase Change Material Admixed Cement Composites—A Review

Phase change material (PCM) is a prospective material with a caliber to store thermal energy. The hasty development in the modern world and lavish life style amplified the energy demand. Building and infrastructure are the leading energy and material consumers over the globe. Conservation of building energy associated to heating and cooling is made possible by embedding PCM in construction materials (like concrete) which has a great potential to improve the thermal comfort of the residents. The concrete coupled with PCMs has a tendency to improve the thermophysical properties like heat capacity/thermal mass and thermal insulating property besides with an ability to save energy for the development of sustainable built environment. There are so many techniques and experimental setups used by the researchers to analyze the thermal performance of PCM-admixed cementitious systems. In line to this, an attempt has been made to review the different experimental setup used by various researchers to study the thermal facets (heat capacity, thermal cycle, thermal conductivity, etc.) of PCM-doped cementitious systems

K. Snehal, Bibhuti Bhusan Das

The Behavior of Ambad Earth Dam Under Change in Water Level and Earthquake

This study presents a dynamic analysis and effect of a change in water level on a zoned earth dam subjected to earthquake motion in which pore water pressure, effective stresses, and displacements are calculated. The finite element method is used in the analysis of the Earth dam. As a case study, the Ambad dam is selected, which is located on the Ambad River in Nashik district of Maharashtra and constructed of the zoned embankment, it has a total length of 0.946 km. The height of the dam is 26.85 m. In the first case of analysis, different magnitudes of earthquakes such as 5.4 and 8.8 are considered for a period of 10 s. The second case is the change in the water level like rapid drawdown and slow drawdown conditions are considered. It is concluded that the value of pore water pressure generated at the base of the core is greater than that in the upper parts of the dam, the stress increases during the earthquake and change in water-level analysis which indicates that the soil continues to weaken during this period, the horizontal displacement increases with the depth of the point of the crest and the largest horizontal displacement will be at the base of the dam at the time of the earthquake and there is an attenuation of the acceleration to some degree depending on the amplitude of the input horizontal acceleration. To improve the stability, a factor of safety, stress and its displacement in this project use the geogrid and grouting technique.

B. M. Bhosale, Rohan Deshmukh

A Review on the Properties of Steel-Concrete Interface and Characterization Methods

The Steel-Concrete interface (SCI) is usually regarded as the weakest region, which influences both mechanical properties and durability of reinforced concrete structures. Several researchers have well explored and defined the importance of SCI on the service life of the reinforced concrete structures as it directly affects the durability. The primary objective of this paper is to report and compare a variety of published findings and microstructural analysis on the SCI in one place which appears in reinforced concrete. The information available on the occurrence, formation, properties, various characterizing and analysing techniques of SCI are reviewed for a better understanding of microstructural properties of SCI on the hardened and durability properties of reinforced concrete. It was found that the SCI exhibits significant spatial inhomogeneity along and around as well as perpendicular to the reinforcing steel. Significant factors like quantification of porosity, porous zone thickness and actions that affect the properties of SCI like wall effect, bleeding, settlement and segregation of fresh concrete which were favourable to both initiation and propagation of corrosion are described in this paper. The influence of w/c ratio, hydration age, steel orientation and mineral admixtures on the distribution profiles of hydration products and Engineering properties of SCI is also discussed.

E. P. Sumukh, Sharan Kumar Goudar, Bibhuti Bhusan Das

Prediction of Compressive Strength and Electrical Resistivity of Mortar Mixes Containing Industrial Waste Products

In the present paper, non-linear soft computing technique (neural network) has been used to predict the compressive strength and electrical resistivity of cement mortar at 7 and 28 days. Thirteen mixes of cement mortar consisting of silica fume and alccofine as subrogation of cement were selected. The training and testing data used in ANN predictive model were based on experimental results in the laboratory. Cement, silica fume, alccofine, sand and water were used as input parameters. The predicted results obtained from ANN using multilayer feedforward neural network were compared with the experimental results. Results showed that ANN technique is effective for the prediction of strength in compression and electrical resistivity of various cement mortar mixes and correlation coefficients were also high. The values of correlation coefficient (R) and R2 were higher at 28 days than 7 days results for both compressive strength and electrical resistivity.

Maninder Singh, Babita Saini, H. D. Chalak

An Overview on Waste Materials Used in Engineered Cementitious Composite

This paper presents the overview on waste materials used for making engineered cementitious composite (ECC). Micromechanics-based ECC is a superb class of high-performance fibre-reinforced cementitious products. It is a mortar-based fibre-reinforced cementitious matrix and shows ductile nature due to excessive strain hardening under tensile loading. With the growth in industry the quantity of industrial waste product on land is increasing, thus resulting in environment pollution in different ways. In the ECC mix design, huge quantity of industrial waste products have been used such as silica fume, iron ore tailings powder, blast furnace slag, crumb rubber, recycled concrete fines, fly ash, palm oil fuel ash and so on. This study reported the effect of these industrial by-products on fresh, mechanical and durability properties of ECC. The present overview signifies that the subrogation of cementitious materials and fine aggregates with the industrial waste products in ECC improves deflection capacity, strain hardening behaviour, flexural and toughness properties, drying shrinkage tensile strain and width of cracks resistance of cementitious composite. The outcome of overview depicts that the properties of ECC enhanced with the use of waste products up to some replacement level, whereas the carbon dioxide emissions decreased, which made the ECC green in nature.

Maninder Singh, Babita Saini, H. D. Chalak

Studies on Modeling and Control of RCC Frame with MR Damper

Magnetorheological Dampers (MR) have the ability to mitigate seismic hazards caused to a structure by reducing its potential to undergo large displacements. The objective of the paper is to formulate an analytical modeling technique to perform the hybrid simulation. The seismic response of a single-story frame employed with an MR damper is analyzed for hybrid simulation. The paper compares the results of several parameters subjected to specific earthquake ground accelerations using an object-oriented programming software called OpenSees. A program source code developed by OpenSees is run with Active Tcl script and changes are made for specific models to validate the simulations for each model. The time-series data for ground accelerations of the earthquakes considered in the models (El Centro, Kobe, and Northridge earthquakes) is taken as an input to perform a simulation. OpenSees software is present as an executable file that runs this source code of the program, performs the simulation for each of the models, and saves the output. The simulated models give us several outputs like acceleration, displacement, damper force, etc., simultaneously after the program is run. The results of the output are deliberated in the form of graphs.

R. Rakshita, C. Daniel, G. Hemalatha, L. Sarala, D. Tensing, S. Sundar Manoharan

Detection of Defects in Concrete Structures by Using Infrared Thermography

This paper presents a report on the use of active infrared thermography in detecting and evaluating the extent of damage in concrete structures. Detection of sub-surface damages in concrete structures by the use of infrared thermography is becoming popular. This is because of advantages like non-contact testing and rapid scanning of any surface for damages. In this study active infrared thermography was conducted on laboratory casted concrete slabs with in-built defects of known sizes. It was found that the defects could be successfully identified by using infrared camera which outputs thermal images of the slab. Further, the images obtained were processed using a program to obtain area of defects. It was found that the defect area estimated had an error of about 32.5% with respect to the actual area. It was concluded that difference between area estimated and the actual area of defects can be minimized by employing adequate amount of thermal excitation.

Madhuraj Naik, Varadmurti Gaonkar, Ganesh Hegde, Lalat Indu Giri

DSP-Based Implementation of MPPT Tracking and Sliding Mode Control for Photo-Voltaic Systems

The conventional energy sources such as thermal and hydro are decreasing and at the same time global demand for energy is increasing almost at an exponential rate. The conversion of renewable or nonconventional energy sources such as solar, wind, and biogas plays an important role. Out of wind, solar, and biogas, the solar energy is easily and more available in nature. In the developed work, solar energy is used as an energy source. Moreover, many rural areas are not electrified even today with the conventional electricity. The efficiency of solar panels is less and their cost is also more. Hence to increase the efficiency, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are implemented using DSP TMS320F28377s. The load voltage of the converter will be maintained constant using sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. A single DSP is used for the implementation of MPPT and SMC. The developed work is good in terms of efficiency, regulation, speed, and accuracy and works in real-time scenarios. The developed work can be used as a standalone system in rural areas for their daily electricity needs.

Subramanya Bhat, H. N. Nagaraja

Analysis of Resilience Performance of Water Distribution Network

Emerging economic focuses on the reliable infrastructure setups for growth. Developed countries also work in more realistic performance indicators for risk assessment of infrastructure. Thus, the reliability of water supply through the water distribution network is improving. Among the risk indicators, resilience is one of the important factors. Resilience of water distribution through pipe network is getting focus in the recent years. Hence, in this paper three important resilience indicators, namely ‘resilience index’, ‘network resilience index’ and ‘total surplus head index’ reported in the literature, are analyzed and the merits and demerits are highlighted. This analysis will be helpful for future research.

A. Ariffa Parakath, T. R. Neelakantan

Influence of Steel Fibers on Enhancing the Toughness Property on Concrete: A Simplified Approach

The limitations of plain conventional concrete on the strength and durability aspects are effectively addressed by incorporating steel fibers into concrete. Many studies proved that there is a drastic improvement in various engineering properties, especially the impact and abrasion resistance. The estimation of impact and toughness is carried out through the areas under stress–strain curves; moreover, it is a time-consuming process. In this investigation, enhancement of toughness property because of the influence of steel fibers in the range of 1–4% is arrived through a simplified approach based on the past researches outcomes and through the experimental study of impact test results. The toughness property drastically improved around 1.81% of the plain concrete in the addition to 2% of volume fraction of steel fibers.

Meyyappan Palaniappan, Jemimah Carmichael Milton, Sathya Soroopan Ramasubramaniam, Hariharan Palvannan, Hariharasudan Sundararaj

Behavior of Zero-Cement Mortar: An Experimental Study

In this study, an attempt is made to study the performance of the mortar by complete eradication of cement with the use of alternative pozzolanic materials, such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), bagasse ash (BA), and rice husk ash (RHA). This research focuses mainly on evolving a zero-cement mortar (Z-cem) using supplementary cementitious materials (GGBS, BA, and RHA) with chemical activators like sodium hydroxide in combination with sodium silicate. Five different levels of replacement Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, and Z5 were proposed to study the optimum level of replacement of pozzolanic materials. Chemical activators having the concentration of 9 M were used in the ratio of 2.5 and 5% by its weight to bind the pozzolanic materials. Various studies such as workability property by slump cone test with mechanical properties like compressive strength, split tensile strength, and durability properties like water absorption and fire resistance tests were performed. Results show that the blending of pozzolanic materials activated by alkaline activators as a complete replacement to cement will perform better, both in terms of strength and durability.

Jagan Sivamani, Mohammed Sulaiman

An Efficient Fire Detection System Using Support Vector Machine and Deep Neural Network

Fire is a dangerous disaster. Uncontrollable fire can cause massive destruction to life and property. Hence fire detection and alarming is a crucial and ever-demanded topic. A fire alarm must be functionally capable and reliable. This paper mainly focuses on a real-time system for fire detection. Videos acquired from CCTVs or webcams are converted to a sequence of images which are then fed to the classifier. Upon detecting fire from the images extracted, an alert is sent to the authorities concerned. Support vector machine (SVM) and deep neural network are used to develop the proposed fire detection system. Both the algorithms are employed to build classification models. Their performances are then compared and the model which gives better accuracy is selected.

Archana Venugopal, Febi Justin, Linju Santhosh, Riya Binny, NG Resmi

Engineering Properties of Heavyweight Concrete—A Review

Heavyweight concrete which differs from normal weight concrete by having a higher density and special compositions to improve its attenuation properties, the density and cost of the material are really important in order to absorb gamma rays. If the main aim of developing heavyweight concrete is focussed to attenuate neutrons, then the material with less atomic weight should be embodied in the concrete mix which can in turn produce hydrogen. It is used in counterweights of bascule and lift bridges, but its general application includes in radiation shielding structures, offshore, ballasting of pipelines etc. The evolution of nuclear power into peaceful applications has given rise to an expanding use of heavy weight concrete in construction industries nowadays. Heavyweight concrete employs bulky conventional aggregates such as barites or magnetite or artificial aggregates such as Fe ore or Pb shots. This paper states a review on impact on engineering properties of Heavyweight concrete such as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength with different heavyweight aggregates as per the investigations conducted by researchers.

B. P. Sharath, Bibhuti Bhusan Das

Experimental Study on Lightweight Concrete with Copper Slag and Pumice Stone, Leca as a Partial Replacement of Aggregates

The project presents the usage of copper slag, pumice stone and leca (light expanded clay aggregate) for partial replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. The experimental procedure is conducted for the replacing percentages of 5, 15 and 25%. For this above-mentioned replacement percentage, M20 grade concrete is used with a water–cement ratio of 0.48. For 5% replacement of pumice, the amount of copper slag replaced is 5% with fine aggregate and the amount of pumice replaced is 5% with coarse aggregate. For 5% replacement of leca, the amount of copper slag replaced is 5% with fine aggregate and the amount of leca replaced is 5% with coarse aggregate. Similarly, 15 and 25% replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is done, respectively. For this purpose, seven sets were prepared to study the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. Each set comprises of three cubes, three cylinders and three prisms. The compressive strength test, split tensile strength test, flexure strength test have been done. A comparison study has been done between leca and pumice to identify the suitable alternate for ordinary concrete. The main objective of this project is to know the strength of partially replaced concrete.

V. Praveen Jesuraj, V. Sreevidya

Influence of Magnetic Water on Properties of Concrete Paver Blocks

Existing paver blocks are brick-like piece made of concrete (cement, sand and aggregates). They are commonly used for exterior flooring. Concrete is the most widely used man-made building material on the planet. Demand of natural sand is one of the setback to the concrete industry. Serious environmental problems formally originated from unrestrained sand and gravel taken from rivers. Owing to high cost of natural sand, there is a need for the construction industry to search for alternate materials. Industrial waste products such steel slag and M-sand were found to be replacement for natural sand. Water is a critical and finite resource that plays a key role in the construction environment. In particular, drinking water quality is depleting due to increasing population and usage at its peak. Magnetic water seems to have some potential impact on quality of water used for construction. In this study, natural sand is completely replaced with M-sand and steel slag and cement content is reduced to about 5–30% optimizing the strength, and an attempt is made to investigate the performance of mechanical properties of paver blocks, when mixed with magnetic water with M30 grade concrete mix. The casted paver blocks are tested for compression and flexural strength. The manufacturing cost of paver block is also less compared to natural sand. It is eco-friendly and cost-efficient in real-time construction industry.

R. Malathy, N. Karuppasamy, V. Adithya, P. Gokulapriya

Floor Response Spectra: An Investigation on Hospital Building

Seismic protection of hospital buildings is at most important as they belong to lifeline structures. Proper definition of seismic demand is essential for earthquake protection of structural components. Generation of floor response spectra assumes significant in design and analysis of structural contents which require high seismic demand. Limiting the floor acceleration/drift is found to be difficult in most of the times in traditional lateral load resisting system and is period-sensitive in addition to ductility [1]. But decoupling the floor from the building using suitable isolation schemes found to reduce the floor accelerations and displacements [2]. The paper presents an investigation into the seismic demand reduction for a chosen isolation scheme on a 10-storey hospital building which essentially lies in the descending portion of response spectrum [3]. The passive isolation scheme consists of spring and damper assembly connecting isolated floor to the building. Nonlinear time history analysis has been carried out on both the floor isolated and non-isolated building subjected to an earthquake intensity of 0.3 g. Dynamic characteristics of the building were evaluated, and apparent dynamic magnification factors were found out which are useful for generation of floor response spectra. Seismic peak floor acceleration (PFA) is one of the significant parameters influencing performance of the building contents. In addition to PFA, spectral acceleration and displacements were selected as engineering demand parameters. Based on the acceleration and drift demands, suitable floor isolation system is suggested. With the chosen floor isolation scheme, seismic demand has been found to decrease imparting higher efficiency to the system. Accurate recommendation related to displacements and floor acceleration provisions are necessary for the efficient seismic protection design of non-structural elements.

H. D. Karthik Nadig, R. Sreekala, K. Sathish Kumar, J. Simon

Behavior of Rectangular Footing on Geosynthetic Reinforced Crusher Dust

Due to rapid industrialization, a huge amount of industrial waste such as red mud, fly ash, and crusher dust is being produced in enormous quantities every day causing environmental pollution to a great extent. Utilization of this waste in a better way is a challenge for the present society. Here in the present study, few laboratory model tests have been conducted on isolated rectangular footing (15 cm × 30 cm) taking crusher dust at loose and medium relative density state as a foundation material instead of sand or clay. The test was conducted on unreinforced and geosynthetic reinforced crusher dust to find the bearing capacity of the footing. Geosynthetic as a reinforcing element was used to enhance the bearing capacity of footing. The experimental results are presented in terms of bearing capacity of reinforced footing with respect to the unreinforced condition and also with the variation of the reinforcement layer. The bearing capacity ratio (BCR) has been obtained with respect to the unreinforced case. It is found that two layers and three layers of reinforcement showed a higher result compared to a single layer of reinforcement. Bearing capacity is increasing with an increase in relative density. It has been observed that the inclusions of geosynthetic reinforcement to foundation soil at loose state increased the bearing capacity by 85%, 107%, and 130% for single, double, and three layers of reinforcement and for the medium dense state, it is increasing by 77%, 113%, and 133%, respectively, with respect to unreinforced condition. The BCR is increasing with an increase in reinforcement and also with an increase in relative density.

Bandita Paikaray, Sarat Kumar Das, Benu Gopal Mohapatra, Sweta Sarangi

Evaluation of Pozzolanic Performance of Treated and Untreated Bagasse Ash

Cement is one of the highly consumed materials in the world for the development of humankind. But it leads to the production of enormous amounts of toxic materials like CO2 which affects the eco-system to a large extent. Hence supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with high pozzolanic content are used as replacement for cement. Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is an example of SCM that can be partially replaced with cement. It is obtained as a by-product from the combustion boilers in sugar industries. Both treated (processed) and untreated SCBA can be used as replacement for cement. The properties of the treated and untreated SCBA are different from each other though they originate from the same source. This is because processing methods have a great influence on altering the chemical, mineralogical and microstructure properties of the ash after treatment. These properties define their suitability for replacement as a partial binding material. This paper investigates on the performance and microstructural characterization of treated and untreated bagasse ash.

S. Sindhu, S. Praveenkumar, G. Sankarasubramanian

Experimental Study on Bubble Deck Slab Using Palm Seeds

Bubble deck slab is an innovatory floor system of reinforced concrete which contains palm seeds as concrete saving elements. Palm seeds replace the ineffective concrete in the centre of the slab, thus decreasing the dead weight from 30 to 50%. Due to lightweight of slab, it reduces the loads on the columns, walls and foundations. The main aim of this project is to study the behaviour of load deflection of RC slab and bubble deck slab. In this study, conventional slab and bubble deck slab are cast and tested. From the results, it was found that the load-carrying capacity of bubble deck slab is 28% more than that of conventional slab. It is also observed that the deflection value in bubble deck slab showed less value than conventional slab.

M. Iswarya, V. S. Tamilarasan

Self-compacting Concrete: A Review

Compaction of concrete is often seen as a difficulty in traditional concrete, because poor compaction affects the concrete’s physical appearance, its strength and durability. It must be reduced by the use of SCC, a form of concrete that needs no mechanical vibration after placing as it flows into formwork on its own weight. The primary objective of the present study is to make use of hybrid fibres in the self-compacting concrete and understand its effects on the fresh properties, and other mechanical properties. The study also intended to quantify the amount of superplasticizers and fibre content to be added to the concrete according to the value of concrete properties measured. The basic properties of concrete materials are tested. The fresh tests such as slump flow test, V-funnel test and L-box test are conducted. The results showed that the workability of the self-compacting concrete decreased as the fibre content increases up to some percentages.

J. Abdul Bari, K. S. Krithiga

Strength Characteristics of Red Mud and Silica Fume Based Concrete

Red mud is a residue of alumina refinery plant; it has high alkaline nature which leads to contamination of nearby lands, water bodies, and air. One ton of alumina produces more than one ton of red mud. The disposal of red mud can be reduced by using it as a replacement to cement in concrete. Also, silica fume used as a ternary mineral in red mud based concrete. The proportion of silica fume as a replacement to cement is kept constant at 5% by weight of cement, and red mud is used as a replacement to cement from 0 to 25% with an interval of 5%. All concrete mixes are tested against flexural, split tensile, and compressive strengths to know the mechanical properties, and also rapid chloride penetration test is conducted to know the durability property. Results showed that the 20% replacement of red mud had shown greater strength values in mechanical properties. Increase in percentage of red mud offered more resistance against chloride ions movement in concrete.

Chava Venkatesh, Madduru Sri Rama Chand, Nerella Ruben, Chereddy Sonali Sri Durga

Effect of Green Corrosion Inhibitors on the Properties of Mortar and Concrete

The effect of corrosion inhibiting properties on concrete and mortar is investigated experimentally. The mortar was prepared by using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Pozzolanic Portland Cement (PPC). Based on the efficiency obtained, OPC was used to prepare concrete. Based on the literatures, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is in two forms, one as powder and another as solution and acting as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor (GCI). The efficiency of two forms of GCI was compared. The physical properties such as consistency and initial setting time have been evaluated by mortar paste, and the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and split tensile strength have been tested by casting mortar cubes, concrete cubes, and cylinders. The addition of GCI in the form of powder decreases the compressive strength due to drought resistance of the neem powder, whereas solution shows the best result due to hydroscopic property of ethanol. Therefore, extracts of plants and natural products are used to achieve cheap, environmentally acceptable, abundant source, readily available and effective molecules having very high inhibition effectiveness and low or zero ecological impact.

K. Kavya, S. Keerthana, T. Pradeep

Utilizing and Optimizing Waste Resources in Paver Block

Use of concrete paver blocks in road pavements is more common nowadays. Concrete paver block is a better option in the road construction from the point of cost and better suitability, when compared to conventional road, which is made by bitumen and gravel. This paper is based on a project undertaken on utilization of coconut shells and waste paper sludge ash as inputs in manufacturing concrete paver block as replacement of coarse aggregate and cement, respectively. In the project, three sets of concrete paver block are proposed to be created on M40 design mix. The first set of paver block is the partial replacement of coarse aggregate by crushed coconut shells in the proportion of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%. The second set of paver block is the partial replacement of cement by waste paper sludge ash in the proportion of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%. The parameters will be tested regarding compressive strength behaviour of paver block specimens for 7 and 28 days. Based on the compressive value, the percentages of the coconut shell and waste paper sludge ash are combined to form a third set of paver block. This block is also to be checked for Compressive Strength, Water Absorption test, Abrasion Resistance test and Flexural Strength test.

S. Janaki Raman, Shanmugasundaram

Prediction of Strength Characteristics of Soil Using Neural Network Techniques

New era of machine learning technique has many prediction techniques like linear/nonlinear regression, genetic expression programming, artificial neural networks (ANN), etc. In the present study, among all artificial intelligence techniques, ANN was used to predict the maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, and unconfined compressive strength of 7-, 14-, and 21-day-aged soil samples those contained stone waste at different percentages. The prediction model consists of input parameters, i.e., mix constituents, one hidden layer with two neurons, and results as output parameters. The training and testing results of prediction models were validated with the laboratory findings. The results showed that ANN prediction model produced very precise results with respect to high correlation coefficient and least root mean square error. Therefore, ANN predictive model can be used to predict various parameters of soil efficiently.

Amit Kumar, D. K. Soni
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