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​This book will provide one of the first comprehensive approaches to the study of smart city governments with theories and concepts for understanding and researching 21st century city governments innovative methodologies for the analysis and evaluation of smart city initiatives. The term “smart city” is now generally used to represent efforts that in different ways describe a comprehensive vision of a city for the present and future. A smarter city infuses information into its physical infrastructure to improve conveniences, facilitate mobility, add efficiencies, conserve energy, improve the quality of air and water, identify problems and fix them quickly, recover rapidly from disasters, collect data to make better decisions, deploy resources effectively and share data to enable collaboration across entities and domains. These and other similar efforts are expected to make cities more intelligent in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, transparency, and sustainability, among other important aspects. Given this changing social, institutional and technology environment, it seems feasible and likeable to attain smarter cities and by extension, smarter governments: virtually integrated, networked, interconnected, responsive, and efficient. This book will help build the bridge between sound research and practice expertise in the area of smarter cities and will be of interest to researchers and students in the e-government, public administration, political science, communication, information science, administrative sciences and management, sociology, computer science, and information technology. As well as government officials and public managers who will find practical recommendations based on rigorous studies that will contain insights and guidance for the development, management, and evaluation of complex smart cities and smart government initiatives.​

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

A Comprehensive View of the 21st Century City: Smartness as Technologies and Innovation in Urban Contexts

Abstract
This chapter introduces important concepts such as smart cities, innovation, technologies, and “smartness” in government. It argues that a concept of smart city should be more than the use of information technologies in local governments. The study and analysis of cities today requires a multidimensional and multifaceted concept and, therefore, multiple components. Some of these components are (1) public services, (2) city administration and management, (3) policies and other institutional arrangements, (4) governance and collaboration, (5) human capital and creativity, (6) knowledge economy and pro-business environment, (7) built environment and city infrastructure, (8) natural environment and ecological sustainability, (9) ICT and other technologies, and (10) data and information. In addition, the authors refer to smartness as public sector innovation in urban contexts. A comprehensive view of a smart city should encompass government innovation in management and policy as well as technology and must acknowledge how the context of a city shapes the data and the technological, organizational, and policy aspects of a specific initiative. The chapter also briefly describes the content and the target audience of this book.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, Theresa A. Pardo, Taewoo Nam

Smart Cities Concepts and Methodologies

Frontmatter

Exploring the Nature of the Smart Cities Research Landscape

Abstract
As a research domain, Smart Cities is only emerging. This is evident from the number of publications, books, and other scholarly articles on smart cities indexed in Google scholar and Elsevier’s Scopus—an abstract and citation database. However, significant literature is available on related topics like intelligent city, digital city, and intelligent community based on search results research repositories such as Elsevier’s Scopus, ACM Digital Library, and Google Scholar. This chapter maps the research work in the smart cities’ domain, based on the available scholarly publications. The aim is to synthesize an emerging understanding of the smart city concept, determine major research themes, types, and gaps in the current research landscape.
Adegboyega Ojo, Zamira Dzhusupova, Edward Curry

Characterizing the Role of Governments in Smart Cities: A Literature Review

Abstract
The growth of smart cities is forcing governments to think the need to advance in the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for the improvement of the citizenry’s participation in decision-making processes, the increasing efficiency of public services, and the improvement of transparency and accountability. In this regard, governments in smart cities are called to play a key role in promoting and managing these cities. Based on prior research, this chapter seeks to analyze the role of governments in smart cities, trying to identify different patterns of management styles in these cities. Also, differences between theoretical and empirical studies about the role of governments in smart cities are identified proposing new research themes for the future.
Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar

Smart City Governance: A Local Emergent Perspective

Abstract
This chapter presents a local emergent perspective on smart city governance. Smart city governance is about using new technologies to develop innovative governance arrangements. Cities all around the world are struggling to find smart solutions to wicked problems and they hope to learn from successful techno-governance practices in other cities. Learning about successes of smart city governance is important but lessons need to be contextualized: approaches that work in one city may fail in another one. This chapter presents the local cooperative knowledge potential and the nature of the problem domain as key contextual factors and develops a model for studying and assessing smart city governance in context.
Albert Meijer

Rethinking Learning in the Smart City: Innovating Through Involvement, Inclusivity, and Interactivities with Emerging Technologies

Abstract
This chapter explores the learning dimension of the smart city and the potential for innovation through use of an early-stage social radio tool. Based on use experience with the tool, this study aims to provide an understanding of: (a) how participatory and collaborative engagement can be fostered and (b) the awareness aspect of emerging technologies. Emergence theory (e.g., emergent behaviors) and the key concepts of awareness, creativity, and innovation are used to provide a context and framework for investigation of use experience with a tool designed for learning through involvement, inclusivity, and interactivities. Nam and Pardo’s technology–people–institution framework for smart cities provides the basis for expanding upon and rethinking learning in the smart city—specifically, rethinking learning flows and relationships to enable interactivities and mutual learning between local government and educators/learners. A case study approach incorporating under design (e.g., a minimally viable tool) is used and multiple methods of data collection and analysis are employed in generating quantitative and qualitative findings. This work makes several contributions to the eGovernment literature by providing: (a) insight into the value of under-design approaches in understanding and assessing tools at the early development stages for eGovernment, transformational government, and lean government; (b) a framework for rethinking and innovating the learning city; and (c) an expanded way of looking at and working with learning and innovation in the smart city that may have implications for other types of eGovernment relationships (e.g., G2C, G2B, and G2G).
H. Patricia McKenna

Ad Hoc BYOD Information Services in Public Places of Smart Cities

Abstract
In this chapter, we focus on public information broadcasting as an important component of a smart city. To broadcast information, we propose to install miniature and very cheap access points in public places in a smart city, capable to interact with mobile personal devices according to the bring your own device (BYOD) idea, in ad hoc and anonymous mode, by means of Bluetooth connection. The broadcasted information is automatically adjusted to the specificity of a given time/place, limiting the need for further processing at the user side. The proposal is not a competitor to current solutions, such as generic mobile applications providing city services based on geo-location. It is rather a natural supplement and extension to the already existing intelligent transportation systems. According to the idea “right information at the right place and the right time,” the proposed system provides the information well suited for the place of its access, as well as minimizes the efforts related to parameterized access and personalized filtering.
Jarogniew Rykowski, Wojciech Cellary

Toward a Methodological Approach to Assess Public Value in Smart Cities

Abstract
This chapter proposes a novel framework aimed at measuring performances of smart cities. The methodological approach underlying the framework has its roots in an in-depth analysis of the smart city paradigm conducted from the perspective of urban governance. In this context, the notion of public value is seen as a backdrop for exploring the various ways in which a value for society can be created in a smart city. With this respect, a multidisciplinary synthesis of various strands of literature related to smart cities paves the way to the conceptualization of a framework meant to evaluate the “smartness” of a city through the lenses of economic, social, and environmental performances, in line with the “triple sustainability” principle. This vision is subsequently operationalized by means of a harmonized set of key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be grouped into two categories (called “core” and “ancillary”): whilst “core” indicators are identified with the intent to allow international comparability and to help policy makers in benchmarking their city on a global scale, and “ancillary” indicators are crafted considering the peculiarities of the city local context. Finally, the Italian city of Turin is used as a case study for testing the proposed assessment tool.
Michele Osella, Enrico Ferro, Elisa Pautasso

Smart Cities and Resilience Plans: A Multi-Agent Based Simulation for Extreme Event Rescuing

Abstract
The concept of smart cities is one that relies on the use of new information and communication technologies in order to improve services that cities provide to their citizens. The resilience of a city is one of the services that it can provide to its citizens. Resilience is defined as its capacity to continue working normally by serving citizens when extreme events (EEs) occur. This chapter will propose a new framework based on multi-agent systems to help cities build simulation scenarios for rescuing citizens in the case of an EE. The main contribution of the framework will be a set of models, at different levels of abstraction, to reflect the organizational structure and policies within the simulation, which involves the integration of truly dynamic dimensions of this organization. The framework will also propose methods to go from one model to another (conceptual to simulation). This framework can be applied in different domains, such as smart cities, earthquakes and building fires.
Karam Mustapha, Hamid Mcheick, Sehl Mellouli

Smart City Implementation Framework for Developing Countries: The Case of Egypt

Abstract
Current smart city frameworks and models are not enough to fulfill the requirements of developing countries in order to face their challenges in applying the smart city concept due to weak integration of social, economic, and political needs, and lack of a holistic and integrated approach to sustainable city development. In addition, most of the developing countries lack the proper means for implementation, proper infrastructures, enough funding, sufficient economic growth, and political stability. Moreover, the challenges that can prevent the success of such a concept are poverty, inequality, cultural barriers, and the continual rise of slums and unplanned immigration from rural areas to cities.
This chapter recommends a “strategic implementation framework for smart city” tailored for developing countries such as Egypt. This general framework aims to assist different successive governments in countries such as Egypt to develop and maintain smart city strategies that help sustainable development of the country instead of building separate isolated cities that cannot face different political, economic, social, and environmental challenges.
Karim Hamza

Smart Cities Around the World

Frontmatter

How Do Southern European Cities Foster Innovation? Lessons from the Experience of the Smart City Approaches of Barcelona and Milan

Abstract
Innovation, and technological innovation in particular, can help city governments meet the challenges of urban governance, improve urban environments, become more competitive, and address sustainability concerns. To prevent and manage these challenges, cities need to operate in an innovative way. In this context, the smart city approach is emerging as a way of solving tangled and difficult problems. However, there is not a unique and right strategy to develop a smart city. By drawing on a comparison between the experiences of Barcelona (Spain) and Milan (Italy), this chapter aims to explore similarities and differences in the way these two Southern European cities, both being the second largest in their respective countries, are building their smart city agenda. The ultimate aim is to identify the main features of two still developing approaches, which appear to be influenced by the increasing integration of smart dimensions and initiatives in the cities’ strategic agendas and the related opportunities and challenges.
Mila Gascó, Benedetta Trivellato, Dario Cavenago

Smart Cities in a Digital Nation: Are Swedish Cities Enough Innovative?

Abstract
Sweden is known to be a well-connected society. There is a will to transform the nation into a digital nation with a specific place granted to the smart cities. These smart cities began to map a digital agenda for the next years where e-business, universities, smart transportation, and green and cultural policies have to be combined. The aim of this chapter is to analyze a few municipal digital agendas (Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö, Jönköping, Umeå) to describe the Swedish model of smart cities. The question is to know whether the digital agenda is linked to a strong development of smart cities.
Christophe Premat

Implementing Smart Services in Moscow: The Integrated Mobile Platform

Abstract
The city of Moscow is a leading implementer of information and communication technologies (ICT) in public services. The high level of ICT and mobile penetration among Muscovites creates a strong demand for mobile and electronic services.
This chapter will explore a case study involving the creation and development of Moscow’s integrated mobile platform (IMP). The case study illustrates ICT usage policy and the Moscow Government’s priorities in terms of delivering and providing access to mobile public services. The case study takes a framework approach to mobile platform development and is also based on the lean government concept. Key success factors in IMP development as well as challenges involved in the collaboration and coordination of various IMP stakeholders are also examined. The case study provides examples of mobile applications developed on the basis of the IMP. The governance decision-making process and regulatory framework for IMP management are examined as well. The IMP is interconnected with innovative front office systems such as the Moscow Public Services Portal and Open Data Portal.
Evgeny Styrin, Artem Kostyrko

Smart Public Safety: Application of Mobile Electronic System Integration (MOBESE) in Istanbul

Abstract
This chapter is a case study about the application of mobile electronic system integration (MOBESE) in Istanbul, Turkey. To fight crime in a more effective and efficient way and to manage the traffic problem, the MOBESE system has been put into practice since 2005. From the perspective of smart city and innovation, this chapter explains the process of the MOBESE system and its applications for crime prevention, crime fighting, and traffic management. The chapter first gives brief information about the case and then reviews the smart city research from information science literature and surveillance research from the criminal justice literature. Then, the case is explained to give an idea about the application of the system. Finally, its relevance and contribution to the literature is discussed.
Sedat Kula, Ahmet Guler

Building an Intelligent Government, Intelligent City, and Intelligent Citizenry Through ICTs: Smart City Innovations in New Taipei City, Taiwan

Abstract
This chapter presents a case study of the smart city initiatives in New Taipei City (NTPC) in Taiwan. Using the integrative framework proposed by Chourabi et al. (Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. In 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference (HICSS) on System Science (pp. 2289–2297). IEEE. 2012) as an analytical lens, the authors discuss the characteristics and scope of NTPC’s innovations in delivering services and managing resources using ICTs, as well as the policies, human, social, and cultural contexts that shape the adoption and development of these smart technologies. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was conducted in response to the research question, contributing to the identification of lessons learned, from this particular case, which may have broader relevance for other smart city initiatives.
Kevin Y. Wang, Chao-Ming Wu

Social Media Experiences at County Level: The Case of the State of Mexico

Abstract
Social media started to be used in public administration in the 1990s. After the Web 2.0 tools impacted government websites, the new trend of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram were implemented in home pages. However, very little is known regarding the consequences of these new technologies and their relationship with citizens and public officials. The focus of this chapter is to understand the link between social media and smart cities. Since citizens use information technologies to communicate, collaborate, and interact, these same activities can be used in smart cities. In order to understand this linkage, we developed a questionnaire based on two different but complementary frameworks related to social media and smart cities and interviewed the chief information officers (CIO)’s of eight cities in the State of Mexico. Our findings reveal that social media tools are immersed into the smart cities’ practices. As a consequence, they are bringing changes in the departments, systems, and relationships among internal agencies. If social media tools are going to be used, then important issues such as inclusion, empowerment, and information quality need to be addressed.
Rodrigo Sandoval-Almazán, Juan Carlos Núñez Armas

Smart Cities and Citizen Participation

Frontmatter

The Role of Citizen Participation in Municipal Smart City Projects: Lessons Learned from Norway

Abstract
In this chapter, we examine the role of citizen participation in the development of smart cities through literature and example cases from Norwegian cities. We present an overview of technologies used for participation, including their strengths and weaknesses, discuss how different types of projects should be handled differently in the decision-making process and present recommendations for how practitioners can set up citizen participation projects in Smart City initiatives. We present three different categories of participation: citizen competence and experience, data collection through citizens’ use of technology and participation as democratic value. Further, we discuss how these categories can be understood in terms of, who sets the agenda and who makes the final decisions in order to frame the project internally in the municipality and externally so that citizens participating know what the outcome of the project will be. Finally, we offer suggestions for technologies that could be used to collect citizen input in each of the three categories of participation.
Lasse Berntzen, Marius Rohde Johannessen

eParticipation in Smart Cities of Developing Countries: Research-Based Practical Recommendations

Abstract
Cities are facing major challenges and the expansion of citizen participation has been considered a valuable strategy. Citizen participation experiences supported by information and communication technologies (ICT), the so-called eParticipation, have taken hold in cities around the world. In this chapter, we discuss some of the enabling and inhibiting elements for the creation of virtual spaces for participation by governments in a developing country of Latin America—Brazil. A list of enabling and inhibiting elements grouped in five dimensions was produced from a survey with Brazilian experts, including public officials, academic researchers, and consultants involved with the implementation of eDemocracy projects. To contribute to smart city initiatives in developing countries, interviews were made with the chief information officers (CIOs) of four major cities in Brazil—Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, and Campinas. We found out that the enablers are concentrated in the sociocultural and technological dimensions, while the inhibitors are mainly in the political and governance dimensions. The enabling elements are, for the most part, external to the sphere of action of city information and communication technologies (ICT) managers. As far as inhibiting elements are concerned, even though they pose broad challenges that may be perceived to be beyond the reach of the leaders of eParticipation initiatives, there is more scope for managerial action.
Paulo Roberto de Mello Miranda, Maria Alexandra Viegas Cortez da Cunha, José Maria Pugas Filho

Technology Helps, People Make: A Smart City Governance Framework Grounded in Deliberative Democracy

Abstract
In sharp contrast to perspectives which overestimate the role played by technology in promoting smart cities initiatives, this chapter explores an important dimension for a full development of smart cities, the integration of human dimensions. Based on the theoretical model of Habermasian deliberative democracy, the chapter proposes a revision of the Chourabi et al. (2012) analytical framework for smart cities initiatives, in which people are as important as technology. In particular, we state that success of smart city initiatives depends upon the capability of integrating people and communities engagement with the advantages of information and communication technologies (ICTs), within a comprehensive smart city governance framework.
Roberto Garcia Alonso, Sebastian Lippez-De Castro

Privacy and Security in Smart Data Collection by Citizens

Abstract
The question of how to make a city or government better by exploiting information and communication infrastructures, referred to as smart city, entails an emerging field of research. Large quantities of data are generated from these infrastructures and infusing these data into the physical infrastructure of a city or government may lead to better services to citizens. Collecting and processing of such data, however, may result in privacy and security issues that should be faced appropriately to create a sustainable approach for smart cities and governments. In this chapter, we focus on data collection through crowdsourcing with smart devices and identify the corresponding security and privacy issues in the context of enabling smart cities and governments. We categorize these issues in four classes. For each class, we identify a number of threats as well as solution directions for these threats.
Sunil Choenni, Mortaza S. Bargh, Carmelita Roepan, Ronald F. Meijer

Innovation and Opportunities for Citizen Participation in Spanish Smart Cities

Abstract
Smart cities are a social, political, administrative, and technological phenomenon. The growth and consolidation of smart cities depends on sociotechnical conditions that implement 2.0 virtual platforms in specific sociopolitical and organizational contexts. To determine whether Spanish smart city Web portals facilitate fluid interaction between local administrations and citizens, we designed a study using heuristic test techniques to analyze Web portal usability in 20 Spanish smart cities. The objective was to identify the type and development level of electronic participation features on selected municipal Web sites.
Xosé María Mahou-Lago, Enrique José Varela-Álvarez
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