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Über dieses Buch

Fair and efficient pricing has become increasingly important in international environmental and transport policy. Thus the valuation and internalization of social costs is now a crucial element within strategies towards sustainable mobility. The book provides methods and results from major European and American studies evaluating both social costs of transport and first experiences with their internalization in different contexts: infrastructure planning, urban road pricing and highway tolling. Additionally, complementary non-monetary instruments for a transition towards sustainable mobility are presented and discussed.





Opening Remarks

This 4th International Social Cost and Sustainability Conference is convened to discuss the important issues surrounding the subject, “Policy Instruments for Incorporating Social Costs into the Transportation Sector.” The Pace University Center for Environmental Legal Studies has been privileged to host this and our past conferences, both in Germany and the United States, jointly with the Centre for European Economic Research. This is the second conference to be held in the United States and it is exciting that we are able to meet this time in New York City, one of the world’s busiest and most vibrant cities, but also one of the most congested and challenged by the unceasing growth in the use of the automobile.
Richard Ottinger

Fair Payment for Infrastructure Use: White Paper of the European Commission

In 1992 the Commission presented its White Book on the future of the Common Transport policy; a global approach to the construction of a Community framework for sustainable mobility. Since then considerable progress has been made. However, at this moment important questions still need to be tackled and solved.
Wim A. G. Blonk

External Environmental Costs of Transport — Comparison of Recent Studies

During the past decades the negative influences of the transport sector on the environment has grown. The actual development of transport and the modal split are in contradiction with sustainable mobility. On the other hand, transport has a major influence on the economy and the quality of life of the general public, therefore measures are necessary to increase the market share of environmentally friendly modes of transport.
Gunther Ellwanger

Valuation Studies


QUITS1 — Quality Indicators of Transport Systems

The objective of the QUITS project is to develop a methodology to improve decision-making in the transport sector by drawing attention to the internal and external quality dimensions. The investigation is based on the main assumption that the quality of a transport system depends on both internal and external variables.
Andrea Ricci, Sigurd Weinreich

The Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on Full Cost Transportation in the U.S.

The Kyoto Protocol is an important step taken under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to avert the buildup of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to dangerous levels. Emissions of carbon dioxide from transportation activities are a major source of such greenhouse gases, about one-third in the U.S. and potentially very large globally as developing country economies grow. The use of full social costing of transportation is attractive as a part of U.S. policy to meet, or indeed surpass, its emission reduction obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. For example, fall cost transportation could be reflected instrumentally in a comprehensive ecological tax reform across the entire economy. In this approach transportation and other energy prices would embody taxes that reflect imputed costs of carbon emissions as well as environmental, health and other external costs, while existing taxes (e.g., on business, labor or households) would be reduced.1 This would have the pragmatic advantage of linking climate protection to other health and environmental co-benefits.
Stephen Bernow, William Dougherty

Optimal Urban Transport Pricing and Sustainability

External costs of transport are real costs not taken into account by consumers when they decide on transport usage. Transport activities are not sustainable when such externalities are not internalised. In this paper we integrate different sorts of urban transport problems in a consistent framework. With a partial equilibrium representation of urban transport markets we model external costs of air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. The model, named TRENEN URBAN, which was developed within projects funded by the EU commission, is applied in case studies for Brussels and Dublin for assessment of the welfare effects of alternative policy instruments.
Margaret O’Mahony, Stef Proost, Kurt Van Dender

Pricing Strategies and Sustainable Mobility


Goal Driven Design of a Sustainable Transport System

The paper describes and summarises the results of a research project1 focussing on the development of a methodology to design a sustainable transport system. In the project a goal driven procedure for planning an environmentally sustainable transport system as part of the federal transport infrastructure planning in Germany has been developed. To demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure, it has been applied in a case study for Baden-Württemberg, a federal state in the south-western part of Germany.
The foundation of the new concept is the political defmition of environmental goals that are aimed at achieving sustainability, Transport policy scenarios are designed that include various regulatory policy measures as well as infrastructure measures for all transport modes. Afterwards, the transport system is evaluated in terms of its environmental effects. This evaluation is undertaken on network level with consideration of multimodal effects. This procedure is repeated until one of the scenarios achieves the given environmental goals. If several scenarios fulfil the goals, a subsequent evaluation procedure will be carried out, which aspires to fmd the economically optimal scenario.
The environmentally sustainable scenario is used to calculate shadow prices for the achievement ofthe environmental goals. This is done by evaluating the cost of those measures that are necessary to change the development of the environmental effects within the trend scenario towards the achievement of the environmentally sustainable scenario.
The results of the case study have demonstrated that a multimodal and networkwide assessment of the environmental impacts of transport infrastructure plans The project and projects is possible. This allows for an integration of environmental regards into the early stages ofthe transport planning procedure.
Wolfgang Schade, Werner Rothengatter, Astrid Gühnemann, Karsten Kuchenbecker

Distance-Based Vehicle Insurance — A Practical Strategy for More Optimal Vehicle Pricing

Automobile insurance premiums are currently a fixed cost with regard to annual vehicle mileage. Distance-based insurance would be more equitable and economically efficient, providing a number of specific benefits including increased road safety, reduced traffic congestion and pollution, road and parking facility cost savings, insurance affordability, and increased consumer welfare. This paper discusses different distance-based pricing strategies, and evaluates the benefits that would result from their implementation. Per-Mile Premiums is found to provide the greatest benefits. This means that the exposure unit is changed from the vehicle-year to the vehicle-mile or-kilometer. Other rating factors are incorporated into this price unit, so higher-risk vehicles are charged more per mile than lower-risk vehicles. This strategy requires “odometer audits” to provide accurate mileage data. The incremental cost of such audits is estimated to be about $7.50 per vehicle year. Total benefits are predicted to be many times greater.
Todd Litman

Valuation of Road Pricing on Selected European Roads

In Europe roads carry 2,565.4 thousand million passengers-miles, and 741.3 thousand million tons-miles2. These figures are very close to the US figures (see table 1).
Lionel Clement, Yves Crozet, Jean-Michel Gambard

Constitutional Constraints on Social-Cost Pricing

Over-reliance on auto and truck transport is a growing problem throughout the industrial world. Yet no nation is so completely and thoroughly dependant on automotive transport as the United States. In 1994, Americans drove a total of 8,898 miles (14,317km) for every man, woman, and child. This was better than two and half times that of the Japanese (5,440km per person) and roughly double that of the French (7,976km per person), the British (7,020km), or the Germans (6,477) — a discrepancy that, thanks to the plummeting price of gasoline in the U.S., is undoubtedly growing worse (Federal Highway Administration, 1995: VII-2, VII-5). The U.S. transportation sector, not surprisingly, consumes two to three times as much energy per capita as the Japanese, French, British, or German transportation sectors, while total rail passenger travel in America is anywhere from 34 to 91 percent less than in those four countries, even though its population is three to four times greater (OECD, 1994: 6–7, 21–21, 38–39).
Daniel Lazare

Strategic Niche Management for Sustainable Mobility

The existing system of land-based transport based on the individual use of automobiles for passenger transport and trucks for freight transport is not sustainable. Problems of pollution and congestion are pressing public authorities to take action but this is far from easy. One reason why it so difficult for authorities to do something about transport-related problems is that there appear to be no attractive alternatives. Sustainable technologies that fulfil important user requirements in terms of performance and price are most often not available on the market. Ideas of what might be more sustainable technologies and systems exist, but the long development times, uncertainty about market demand and social gains, and the need for change at different levels — in organisation, technology, infrastructure and the wider social and institutional context — provide a great barrier. This paper offers a way to escape the gridlock by engaging in what we call “Strategic Niche Management” (SNM). SNM aims at taking the new technologies to the market place to try and use them in selected settings — niches — by real users. The niches consist of domains of application in which the technology (or new mobility system) is already attractive to use due to specific circumstances (a local problem or the availability of specific, low cost resources). Experiences in the niche are then used to inform decisions about technical improvement and support policies, aimed at expanding the original niche and making a transition towards a more sustainable transport system. The protected space, in which the technology is temporary protected from the full force of normal selection pressures, acts as a test bed and incubator for the new technology. It may pave the way for private and government support policies in a gradual, non-distortionary, and thus feasable way. The paper provides three examples of SNM in Europe: the large-scale experiment with light-weight electric vehicles in Mendrisio (CH), organised car sharing in Switzerland and Rolling Highway in Sweden.
René Kemp, Bernhard Truffer, Sylvia Harms

Instruments for Attaining Urban Sustainability The Case for Tradable Vehicle Use Permits

What is now a litany among environmentalists and urban planners, the list of ills to be attributed to the unbridled use of the private vehicle is long, and getting longer: huge economic losses due to congestion on roads and highways, air, water and land pollution, loss of habitat due to road building and development, loss of farmland, destruction of social cohesiveness and now global climate change. In the U.S., perhaps the world’s best (worst?) example of the overuse of the private automobile, a full 31% of its carbon dioxide emissions are generated in the transport sector.
Haynes Carson Goddard

The TransPrice Project: Experiences with Transport Pricing in Eight European Cities

Several studies and previous research projects in various countries have considered urban transport pricing policies, actions and measures, towards changing modal split in favour of public transport, including road use charging options. However, there is still considerable reluctance by city authorities to implement integrated pricing policies due to a perceived lack of public acceptability, particularly related to road pricing. Previous studies on road pricing or congestion charging have concentrated on technology and operational issues, with the intermodality, financial, socio-economic, land use and environmental issues frequently not considered in detail. Demand management actions have focused on the implementation of physical, traffic control and public transport priority measures which, although having a positive effect, they have not produced the drastic modal split changes that are usually required.
Manos Vougioukas
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