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Über dieses Buch

This volume explores the links between the rapidly growing phenomenon of social entrepreneurship (SE) and the international tourism and hospitality industry. This unique industry is particularly ripe for transformation by SE and the book’s authors delve deeply into the reasons for this. The book has three parts. The first creates a conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding the uniqueness of SE in the tourism context. The second examines different communities of practice where SE is being applied in tourism. The third is a rich collection of case studies from eight countries where tourism SE is already having an impact. The book’s authors address the topic from many different angles, disciplinary backgrounds and geographic areas. Many case study authors are practicing social entrepreneurs who share their successes, challenges and experience with tourism-related projects. The book also proposes a research agenda and educational programmatic changes needed to support tourism SE. As these are developed, tourism SE will bring innovation to destinations, transformation of their economic and social structures, and contribution to a better world. The book has many insights and resources for scholars and practitioners alike to usher in this transformation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism: Setting the Stage

This chapter sets the conceptual foundation for the book. It provides a background on the development of thought around social entrepreneurship, and the scholars and organizations that have led to its development. After introducing various definitions of social entrepreneurship it then goes on to develop a definition of tourism social entrepreneurship (TSE). The terms ‘tourism social entrepreneur’ and ‘tourism social enterprise’ are also defined. An analysis of the current state of the tourism and hospitality industries and their market failures leads into a discussion of how TSE can transform the industry for the better. The chapter then describes how social entrepreneurship can effectively make changes to the economic and social systems that are no longer working in the world and in tourism. The status of tourism social entrepreneurship in industry, academia and education are then discussed. The final section of the chapter lays out the book’s contents, its three sections and the topics of each chapter.
Pauline J. Sheldon, Anna Pollock, Roberto Daniele

Understanding Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism

Frontmatter

Theorizing Social Entrepreneurship Within Tourism Studies

This chapter commences with a discussion of the term entrepreneurship as conceptualized by key economists, Schumpeter, von Mises, and Kirzner. Various fundamental theoretical linkages between the terms entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship are presented. Discussions related to the types of institutional sectors that encompass social entrepreneurship are discussed, namely, for profit, non profit, and public sector. The applicability of social entrepreneurship to the field of tourism is extensively discussed, particularly relating to sustainable tourism and other forms of tourism that attempt to respond the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations. The chapter presents an example of a tourism-related Native American owned social enterprise, DinéHozhó L3C, which was devised by the Navajo Tribe of Arizona, USA. The chapter ends with a presentation of four important research avenues that can contribute to further theorizations of social entrepreneurship and tourism. It is argued that further research into social enterprises related to various tourism sectors will be useful in amassing evidence for best practices within the field as augmenting theoretical bodies of knowledge. It is important for such scholastic endeavors to go beyond idealizing examples of social entrepreneurship in order to critically examine the sustainability (social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental) of such initiatives.
Christine Buzinde, Gordon Shockley, Kathleen Andereck, Edward Dee, Peter Frank

Institutional and Policy Support for Tourism Social Entrepreneurship

There is no question that poverty, social and economic marginalization are contributing to a growing gap between rich and poor, and that international agencies, governments and the private sector have failed to substantially address these issues. The aim of this chapter is to examine the characteristics of supportive institutional and policy environments for tourism social entrepreneurship. It argues that governments can contribute in two broad ways to creating the conditions for tourism social entrepreneurship to flourish: they can develop policies that support and encourage the development and operation of social enterprises as part of an inclusive and sustainable tourism system, and they can assist in the creation of institutional conditions that encourage, legitimize and synergize social entrepreneurship. The chapter offers concrete considerations for policy makers in terms of making institutional and policy changes, but at the same time seeks not to take a normative stance with respect to giving particular directives.
Dianne Dredge

Social Entrepreneurship Typologies and Tourism: Conceptual Frameworks

The chapter examines the ways that social entrepreneurs (SE) and Socially-Entrepreneurial Organizations (SEO) have been categorized. SEs have been categorized in terms of their personal traits and character, their organizational context, their work/leadership style, their motivations and the types of activities they undertake. SEOs have been categorized by the way they balance their social mission with revenue generation, the types of social benefits they provide, funding, and their use of tangible and intangible assets. Each of these typologies can be effectively applied to tourism. While, the terms SE and SEO are relatively new to tourism, they are closely linked to established fields of tourism study. Ecotourism, pro-poor tourism, and community based tourism are all areas of tourism that rely heavily on the work of SEs and SEOs. The new focus on SEs and SEOs provides new perspectives for the study of tourism. The chapter concludes by suggesting a number of typologies for tourism-related SE and SEO studies.
Jonathon Day, Makarand Mody

Business Models for Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism

This chapter examines the business model construct as a possible tool to analyze how social enterprises create value for their stakeholders. In particular it identifies different operational models and examines how they are particularly relevant to tourism and hospitality. The chapter first reviews the extant literature on business models before moving on to examine their applicability to social enterprises. Key components of the business models are then analyzed in the context of tourism social enterprises. These include the identification of a value proposition, key resources, key networks, and an analysis of economic capital, revenue streams, cost structures, legal structures and marketing and distribution channels. The paper’s conclusion argues for more extensive use of the business model construct by tourism social entrepreneurs to help them become more successful and sustainable. This will provide a more consistent approach to analyzing in-depth case studies of tourism social enterprises in the future.
Roberto Daniele, Isabel Quezada

Social Innovations in Tourism: Social Practices Contributing to Social Development

The concept of social innovation has, in recent years, received increased attention yet has received limited attention in the academic tourism literature. This chapter on social innovations in tourism has three aims: first, to provide a conceptual overview of social innovation, particularly in context of social entrepreneurship; second, to link the theoretical concept to existing literature and themes in tourism research; and third, to provide an impetus for not only thinking about, but also enacting and performing social innovation in a tourism context. At a general level, social innovation can be viewed as a process of collaborative innovation, where the innovation process benefits from networks, co-operation and co-production or as a social outcome, which changes social interactions and practices. With reference to examples from tourism, the chapter discusses new technologies and their effect on transforming social practices, on social innovations as a new form of governance, social entrepreneurship as one aspect of social innovation and the largely bottom-up and collaborative characteristics of social innovation.
Jan Mosedale, Frieder Voll

Understanding How Social Entrepreneurs Fit into the Tourism Discourse

This chapter discusses how social entrepreneurs fit into the existing tourism discourse taking place in the academic literature. There are many areas of discourse that intersect with social entrepreneurship however this chapter identifies those that are closest to the topic of tourism social entrepreneurship. It examines four areas of literature in particular; tourism entrepreneurs, sustainability, destination development and intrapreneurship. It then analyzes how introducing the concept of social entrepreneurs into these discussions can contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon and its development. The key argument is that research on social entrepreneurs is not just relevant for those interested in entrepreneurs it also effects our thinking on issues such as destination development, relationships between stakeholders, tourism policy and sustainability. The outcome of the chapter is to point the way for tourism researchers to extend the scope of research on this topic.
Ziene Mottiar, Karla Boluk

Communities of Practice

Frontmatter

Exploring Social Entrepreneurship in Food Tourism

A variety of food movements have social entrepreneurs at their forefront supporting more sustainable practices: Slow Food, eating local, minimizing food waste, expanding food access, and showing concern for animal welfare. The aim of this chapter is to contribute to the limited research on social entrepreneurs in food-related tourism ventures. Four semi-structured interviews were carried out with food entrepreneurs in North Carolina. Each of the entrepreneurs represents different stages of the food supply chain. Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship and Ecological Systems Theory were used as the theoretical frameworks underpinning the research. The research found that food entrepreneurs are consciously focused on value creation beyond the revenue generated by their business. Value was created by giving farmers a voice, providing healthy alternatives, providing education, minimizing environmental impacts, and striving to foster community. Finally, leveraging networks was identified as a key strategy by the social entrepreneurs.
Carol Kline, Karla Boluk, Neha M. Shah

Knowledge Dynamics in the Tourism-Social Entrepreneurship Nexus

Tourism is often employed as a vehicle for facilitating social-economic development, however its usefulness has been somewhat limited in relation to addressing social issues, and in particular, those issues relating to poverty. This is partly due to the lack of cross-sectoral interactions and knowledge exchange between private, public and third sectors that are needed to create effective and appropriate initiatives to leverage tourism for social benefits. Such traditional sectoral boundaries can be broken down through social entrepreneurship approaches which concomitantly, facilitate the creation and synergizing of social innovation that addresses persistent social issues. Yet to date, the utility of cross-sectoral knowledge dynamics still remains largely under-researched in both the social entrepreneurship and tourism literature. This chapter introduces readers to the concept of knowledge dynamics and discusses knowledge dynamics in the tourism and social entrepreneurship nexus via a case study of community-based tourism in Mai Hich, Vietnam. We argue that by gaining an enhanced understanding of cross-sectoral knowledge dynamics, we can strengthen the overall praxis of tourism and social entrepreneurship, and in particular, assist policymakers in fostering conditions that generate increased innovation.
Giang Thi Phi, Michelle Whitford, Dianne Dredge

Social Enterprise Evaluation: Implications for Tourism Development

The evaluation of social enterprise projects has focused mainly on devising effective performance measurement methods and processes to justify the investment of resources and time committed to such activities. With increasing demands for accountability, effectiveness, evidence of return on investment and value-added results, evaluation activities have been driven by imperatives of objectivity in assessments and the development of tools that monetize the social outcomes and impacts of social enterprise projects. These traditional approaches to evaluation have also been widely adapted in tourism based social enterprises that seek to attain goals of poverty alleviation, empowerment of local communities, and improved livelihoods for those marginalized from mainstream tourism economic activities. This chapter argues that traditional approaches to evaluation may be limited in supporting social entrepreneurship projects with development objectives of empowerment and societal change. It is proposed that social enterprise projects involving community participation may be better positioned to achieve their developmental objectives by incorporating more of the principles of Participatory Evaluation (PE) and Empowerment Evaluation (EE) in the quest to harness the economic prowess of tourism for human development.
Marcella Daye, Kawal Gill

Cases

Frontmatter

Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism Development in Mexico: A Case Study of North American Social Entrepreneurs in a Mexican Town

Enacting social entrepreneurship is about individual engagement, innovative ideas and creating social change. This article challenges this proposition of the individual social entrepreneur, rather social entrepreneurship is to be understood within the facilitating roles of networks through the process of mobilising collective interaction, trust and collaborate activities within networks. This case study considers the increasing flow of North Americans settling in Mexico to be social entrepreneurs. Their tourism-related business often has a social aim, not only generating economic growth but also addressing emerging socio-cultural needs in the Mexican communities. Through their non-profit organizations these transnational social entrepreneurs gain acknowledgment to the extent that they challenge the authorities’ power and even shape the meaning and nature of development. Here network ties and trust are essential factors for the sustainability of the ideas of the social entrepreneurs. We argue that these ties are based on symbolic and concrete practices such as national identity, global imaginaries and transnational practices, which makes it necessary to position transnational social entrepreneurs in tourism within a broader economic, sociocultural and political context and not understand entrepreneurship only as individual engagement.
Helene Balslev Clausen

Heroic Messiahs or Everyday Businessmen? The Rhetoric and the Reality of Social Entrepreneurship in India

While the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship is not new, there remain several ambiguities associated with its definition and theoretical formulation. To understand how social entrepreneurs create value in their quest to resolve social issues, it is important to appreciate the motivations that underlie their behavior. This chapter uses the cases of two social entrepreneurs in responsible tourism in India to identify a range of value-oriented and traditional entrepreneurial motivations. It further identifies how these motivations are intricately woven into a process of identify creation that illuminates the performative aspects of social entrepreneurship. Through their association and dissociation with a host of entities in the ecosystem, the social entrepreneurs tend to maintain their organizations’ legitimacy as heroes, thus adhering to the popular social discourse surrounding social entrepreneurship. While such conformity, validated by the entrepreneurs’ life stories, is beneficial in shaping the social entrepreneurial narrative, we argue that the need to further the social entrepreneurship agenda must incorporate alternative forms of thinking and talking about the phenomenon. These alternative discourses illuminate the duality of social entrepreneurship—its rhetoric as a grand, Schumpeterian style innovation and its reality as bricolage.
Makarand Mody, Jonathon Day

Guludo Beach Lodge and the Nema Foundation, Mozambique

Mozambique in south east Africa is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world. It ranks amongst the lowest in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality, and average life expectancy. The country has a host of social, cultural and/or environmental problems. However, one venture has been established which is making a huge contribution to the welfare of many people in the north eastern part of the country. Guludo Beach Lodge was founded in 2002 and is located in Quirimbas National Park in the Cabo Delgado Province of Mozambique. The lodge is a community based eco-resort which is used as the basis for funding the Nema Foundation which in turn supports a raft of social projects in surrounding local communities. Nema is a UK registered charity working in the district of Macomia, Mozambique, with 16 communities to improve access to education, safe drinking water, healthcare, food security and SMEs. It has a diverse range of grass-root projects tailored to each community with donations going directly to these projects bringing opportunities and hope to a new generation.
Amy Carter-James, Ross Dowling

The BEST Society: From Charity to Social Entrepreneurship

This chapter is a case study of a multi-award winning Malaysian non-governmental organization (NGO), the Borneo Ecotourism Solutions and Technologies (BEST) Society, and its sustainable community development model. The case study draws upon social entrepreneurship literature, Diffusion of Innovations theory and the concept of toxic charity to propose a four-step sustainable community development model, which nurtures social entrepreneurship in the final step. As financial difficulties increasingly trim direct and indirect governmental support for those in need, NGOs such as BEST seek to address this shortfall with long-term and sustainable solutions for the underprivileged and underserved. Based on almost two decades of experience, BEST has learned that simply giving charity creates dependency, a non-sustainable and temporary patch that tends to make the recipients worse off than receiving no charity. BEST has shifted from giving charity to developing social entrepreneurs, who create and sustain both social and private value. The first step in BEST’s community development model, community consensus, drives the next three steps: interrupting dependency, building capacity and developing social entrepreneurs. The final step gives the recipients self-belief, self-reliance, self-determination and self-esteem. The chapter and accompanying model provide recommendations for application and future scholarly research of social entrepreneurship and sustainable community development.
Jamie Murphy, Albert Teo, Casey Murphy, Eunice Liu

Social Enterprise Ecosystems: A Case Study of the Danube Delta Region of Romania

This chapter seeks to critically explain the optimal conditions that enable social enterprise activities to materialize, grow and blossom into sustainable organisations. The core notion and key to understanding the necessary framework for these developments is the concept of a social enterprise ‘ecosystem’. The case explores the knowledge and understandings of the actors who constitute the social enterprises and ecosystem elements in order to uncover how the integrated support network of nodes and connections that constitute the ecosystem is formed. The practical issues, influences and sources of innovation involved in creating social enterprise ecosystems are explored by examination of the individuals, organisations and processes which constitute the hub or tree trunk sap for a place-based community network located the Danube Delta region of Romania (i.e. the local ecosystem developed by a local social enterprise). The research methodology involves in-depth interviews with key decision makers and the mapping of the nodes and links that make up the social enterprise ecosystem and the practical issues and influences this has on tourism businesses in the Danube basin-area.
Georgiana Els, Kevin Kane

Adventure Alternative and Moving Mountains Trust: A Hybrid Business Model for Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a hybrid business model for social entrepreneurship in tourism through a case study of the tour operator Adventure Alternative (AA) and its sister charity Moving Mountains Trust (MM). Using the business model construct outlined in chapter “Business Models for Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism” of this book in combination with data collected by the authors over a 5 year collaboration period between Oxford Brookes University and AA and MM, the business model components for this innovative and award winning social enterprise are examined in detail. Key findings highlight the benefits of adopting a social entrepreneurship business model for tourism development particularly in the business model areas of “value networks”, “key resources” and “customer relationships”. The increased resilience of tourism companies operating within in a social entrepreneurship framework is also a key finding of this case study.
Roberto Daniele, Gavin Bate, Isabel Quezada

The Influence of Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism on an Arab Village in Israel

This chapter explores how social entrepreneurship in tourism can convey societal benefits in an underserved Arab community in Israel. This analysis draws from three theoretical perspectives (i) social sustainability, (ii) theories associated with tourism, development, and economic empowerment, and (iii) the growing body of scholarship on tourism and peace-building efforts, and also includes an empirical case study situated in the Israeli village of Jisr-az Zarqa. The study focuses on the development of the village’s first commercial guest house, which is operated through a special Arab-Jewish partnership. This study employed qualitative research methods such as participant observation and in-depth, open-ended interviews. Findings revealed three categories associated with the influence of social entrepreneurship in tourism in Jisr az-Zarqa. The first category is largely descriptive and identifies the barriers to tourism development in the village. The second category analyzes the role of social entrepreneurship in tourism through the special Arab-Jewish business partnership that operates the guesthouse. The third category offers insights into the impacts associated with Jisr az-Zarq’s first commercial guesthouse.
Alexandra Stenvall, Daniel Laven, Alon Gelbman

Walking on Country with Bana Yarralji Bubu: A Model for Aboriginal Social Enterprise Tourism

The purpose of this research is to describe a model for Aboriginal social enterprise tourism developed by an Aboriginal family. This research examines the relationship between the operation of the business and the vision guiding the business owners through a qualitative case study of Bana Yarralji Bubu, a tourism social enterprise in northern Queensland, Australia. The business owners have used a holistic sustainability approach to pursue their cultural, environmental, wellbeing and economic goals. This research finds however that efforts spent on achieving multi-dimensional benefits have occurred at the expense of business development and profitability. The research also demonstrates that business development has been impacted both by negative social capital existing in the local community as well as external factors such as land use planning and land administration systems, the political environment and the tourism market. A new model is therefore proposed that situates the tourism social enterprise relative to influences that clan relationships have upon the operation of the business and illustrates how these relationships combined with the external forces create additional inhibiting and enabling conditions that affect the realization of business goals and overall sustainability. This research uses the term ‘Aboriginal’ social enterprise tourism as it refers to mainland Australian Aboriginal tourism opportunities, recognising that this term is most appropriately used to refer to the specific identity of mainland Aboriginal peoples within Australia on a national level. The term ‘indigenous’ is used in the international context.
Helen Murphy, Sharon Harwood

Conclusion

Frontmatter

Moving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward: Agendas for Research and Education

This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future. It considers the changes needed in research approaches, in our universities, our curricula, our learners, and ourselves as academics. These changes we hope will stimulate the dialog on how TSE can mobilize the energy, vision and social spirit of those who seek to change the world for the better through tourism.
Pauline J. Sheldon, Dianne Dredge, Roberto Daniele
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