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This textbook provides students with real-world social marketing case studies from different countries and regions around the world, taking learners from classroom theory to practice. The primary objective is to clearly portray to students distinct, identifiable steps that are essential for successful social marketing campaigns. Core social marketing practices are applied to each case to help students master social marketing principles and apply them to their own real world social marketing activities in order to affect positive social change.

This textbook first provides the tools necessary to understand the effective applica- tion of social marketing, and then offers 24 case studies exemplifying effective social marketing efforts from all around the world. Specifically, Part I clearly and concisely explains the principles of social marketing in five chapters:

• Upstream vs. downstream social marketing, SWOT, competition

• Fundamentals of social marketing, ethics

• Formative and Evaluative Research

• Theories applied in social marketing

• A historical perspective on social marketing

Part II features 24 social marketing case studies that demonstrate the application of social marketing principles. All 24 cases follow a consistent structure that includes:

• Background • Positioning

• SWOT • Research

• Objectives • The 4 P’s

• Target audience • Evaluation

• Barriers and benefits • Discussion

• Competition

This format allows for students and professors to easily and effectively select individual cases and compare between cases. This textbook also allows instructors to encourage critical thinking by having students compare and contrast not only the cases themselves, but the applications used. In addition, teaching guides with answers to discussion questions, suggestions for activities inside and outside of the classroom and further readings are available to assist professors in teaching from this book.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Correction to: Social Marketing in Action

Debra Z. Basil, Gonzalo Diaz-Meneses, Michael D. Basil

Understanding Social Marketing

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Big Picture in Social Marketing

Abstract
 This chapter defines social marketing and places social marketing within the broader environmental context. Social marketing is positioned in comparison with education and law. The difference between upstream and downstream, as well as macro and micro, and social marketing are discussed, highlighting the need for all of these approaches. The importance of conducting a thorough situation analysis is stressed, including identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis). Finally, this chapter addresses the need to identify competing behaviors that may hinder your social marketing efforts.
Debra Z. Basil

Chapter 2. The Fundamentals of Social Marketing

Abstract
This chapter explains the steps necessary for creating a social marketing program. These include identifying appropriate objectives and goals for your program, properly segmenting the potential audience, selecting an appropriate target audience who will be receptive to your efforts, and positioning your social marketing program in a way that appeals to your target audience. It is essential to identify the barriers your target may face and remove these, as well as offer benefits to encourage the desired behavior change. A “four P’s” approach is explained for designing your social marketing program. This method considers the “product” you are offering (behavior change), the price it represents for your target audience (both monetary and non-monetary), the place where it will be offered, and how you will promote it. Finally, this chapter discusses the ethical challenges inherent in social marketing efforts.
Debra Z. Basil

Chapter 3. Research and Evaluation in Social Marketing

Abstract
Social marketing efforts do not only benefit from research, but research is essential to effective social marketing. This research can be done at several points in time. Before the program begins or (as intervention as is often labeled) begins, you can find out what people are already doing, why they are doing, what they are doing, how they see the desired behavior, and whether they have any desire to change; during the intervention, you can ask how well your effort is working, and what they think about your social marketing intervention; afterward, you can discover how effective the intervention was, where it succeeded and where it didn’t. You can also understand which of the social marketing tools were employed in a given intervention and compare that to how successful the effort was. That is, research is critical in finding out what people do and why, and this provides an understanding of what you should do, as well as what worked, what didn’t, and why. This chapter will review the major categories and approaches to social marketing research. In the appendix following this chapter, online resource links are provided for further guidance in research and evaluation.
Michael D. Basil

Chapter 4. Theory in Social Marketing

Abstract
As scientists, we try to derive theories to provide predictions on why things operate as they do. That is, we hope to understand a phenomenon by understanding the underlying system. In its most ideal form, we try to understand the general principles which underpin the phenomenon—to allow us to explain not only when something occurs and when it does not, but why. Ideally, this understanding will lead us to be able to make predictions not only about the particularistic phenomenon but lead up to generalizable knowledge about similar phenomena. In Chap. 4, we discuss the use of research and evaluation in social marketing. We address the nature of research, when it should be conducted, and how. The appendix offers online resources that provide further guidance into conducting research and evaluating your program.
Michael D. Basil

Chapter 5. A Brief History of Social Marketing

Abstract
Learning from the past can help increase our chances for success in the future. Savitt (Journal of Marketing 44:52–85, 1980) believes that marketing scholars have not paid sufficient attention to our history, and this is important for social marketing. There are many benefits to be gained from examining our history. In this chapter, we provide a brief history of social marketing, to help us understand where we have been, how we got here, and to orient our social marketing practice for the future. There are several specific benefits of reviewing our history. First, understanding the history of social marketing helps delimit the concept and scope of the enterprise. Historical analysis illuminates the use of technical terms and identifies the boundaries of its application. Therefore, a review of history strengthens our general understanding of the field. Second, the study of our history facilitates informed discussions, critical reflections, and analytical thought that the development of any discipline needs (Domegan in Journal of Historical Research in Marketing 2:457–466, 2010). That is, history is a vehicle for diagnosing the current context and understanding changes with the aim of imbuing our potential praxis with meaning. Third, as long as we learn from experience, the past can provide a source of wisdom and good sense. As a result, this can help us improve social marketing tools’ efficacy and efficiency in future endeavors. Though our history may not progress linearly, advances are unlikely if they are not based on a firm knowledge of where we have been. An understanding of our history allows us to of bridge the past, present, and future (Domegan in Journal of Historical Research in Marketing 2:457–466, 2010).
Gonzalo Diaz-Meneses, Michael D. Basil

Social Marketing Cases: Social Welfare

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Fun Ways to Engage with Rail Safety Through the Dumb Ways to Die Social Marketing Campaign

Abstract
“Dumb Ways to Die, so many Dumb Ways to Die”—can you hear the song? It will be stuck in your head all day now! This case examines a world renowned viral campaign with an underlying message about “being safe around trains.” Metro Trains Melbourne chose a unique approach to connecting with train passengers, and this innovative campaign, created by McCann Agency, has reached millions of people worldwide. The humorous and fun message represents a completely different tactic to the often-used serious and/or fear-based messages adopted by social marketers aiming to improve rail safety. Despite the campaign’s success in regard to evaluative measures of the number of YouTube video views and app downloads, there is debate surrounding the translation of these measures into actual behavior change. This case study centers upon exploring the case from a social marketing program perspective, so, all aboard!
Jennifer Algie, Nicole Mead

Chapter 7. The Second Life of Food: When Social Marketing Bridges Solidarity and Waste Prevention

The Case of the Italian Food Bank
Abstract
Building on the social ecological framework, the case of the Italian Food Bank sheds light on how multi-level social marketing strategies and synergistic collaborations between various groups of stakeholders could create an enabling environment for change that eventually benefits the individuals, communities, environment, and society at large. The Italian Food Bank has been recovering the food that would otherwise end up in landfills in order to redistribute it to charitable organizations for the benefit of those in need since 1989. It further takes an active role in public policy advocacy, spreading the best industry practices and public awareness-raising initiatives aimed at curbing food waste in collaboration with food producers, retailers, public institutions, and other non-profits. In this way, by bridging two urgent social problems—food waste and food insecurity—as well as connecting public, non-profit, and for-profit organizations, it eventually transforms “food recovery” from a cost to a multiplied value, thus creating a win–win and a virtuous circle for all stakeholders involved.
Ksenia Silchenko, Federica Simonetti, Giacomo Gistri

Chapter 8. The Bank of Cancer Research: Applying Social Marketing to Provide Sustainable Funding for Cancer Research

Abstract
This case study presents a concept for raising funds that would lead to sustainable funding for cancer research. The concept draws on the idea of a purpose entity, in the form of the Bank of Cancer Research (BCR), that would use its profit as a revenue stream for cancer research. The approach also includes aspects of cause-related marketing, where a profit and non-profit organization work together for mutual benefit. The BCR concept has significant benefits for customers, the bank, cancer research, and society more broadly; however, it is not without its limitations, namely how is the funding for a bank able to be obtained? Details of the concept are presented and who should be targeted together with campaign objectives and considerations for positioning of the bank. While the concept is still at an embryonic phase, the case provides the reader with much to consider in the establishment of a new venture concept and the opportunities for applying social marketing theory.
Peter Vitartas, Nicholas Shipley, Aaron March

Chapter 9. VCW for Social Impact in a Developing Country: Personal Development and Entrepreneurship in a Leadership Academy

Abstract
The Value Creation Wheel (VCW) is a meta-framework that can help to solve both individual (myVCW) and organizational challenges (socialVCW). This case study describes, first at the individual level, the application of the VCW to a set of social entrepreneurship projects driven by young women who wish to become leaders in projects with world impact. It highlights how the benefits brought by the VCW workshops were of great help to solve different challenges associated with individual insecurities and hesitations, helping people to define their value proposition and market approach to fulfill their vocation. Second, at the organizational level, this case explains how the VCW can be used to support social organizations to tackle the challenges of their own targets. The VCW project supported the Leadership Academy Program, promoted by Girl Move Foundation, a social organization operating in the region of Nampula, Mozambique. The goal of the program is to stimulate personal development and encourage women to make life decisions in a developing country. The training and empowerment of young women will foster leadership and entrepreneurship competencies, and consequently will have a social impact. This is an excellent social context in which to apply the VCW, myVCW and socialVCW.
Carlos Reis-Marques, Luís Filipe Lages, Valentine Vix Caminati

Chapter 10. Operation Red Nose: Providing a Safe Holiday Ride and Raising Money for Charity Through Social Marketing

University of Lethbridge Pronghorns’ Operation Red Nose Campaign
Abstract
Impaired driving poses a significant threat to public safety. Yet, safe alternatives to impaired driving, such as a chauffeur service, are often less convenient and more expensive, making them particularly less appealing options. How can charities under considerable budgetary restraint increase the appeal of hiring a chauffeur? This case study highlights how the University of Lethbridge Pronghorn Athletics Department implemented an Operation Red Nose campaign in order to reduce impaired driving and raise funds for their athletics program.
Katherine C. Lafreniere, Katharine Howie

Chapter 11. Social Marketing for the Reduction of Tax Evasion: The Case of Electronic Invoicing in Portugal

Abstract
This case study is on a social marketing campaign to decrease tax evasion in Portugal. The main campaign goal was to promote wider general use of invoices with the customer’s tax number. The social marketing campaign is based on marketing incentives to issue an invoice. The incentives involve tax deductions, an invoice lottery (with tax numbers) every month, direct marketing actions, and advertising. The process of generating invoices by traders became mandatory and simplified with certified systems. Customers can show a bar code which can be easily scanned to introduce their tax number in invoices. This process has become culturally accepted and part of the normal sales process. The social marketing intervention decreased VAT tax evasion in priority sectors and is creating a social norm of generating invoices with tax numbers, through tax deduction incentives and an invoice lottery. In the long term, tax evasion as a social norm should be re-evaluated in order to control social marketing effectiveness.
Beatriz Casais, Marisa R. Ferreira, João F. Proença

Chapter 12. Worn Wear: Better than New—How Patagonia’s Social Marketing Campaign Enhances Consumers’ Responsible Behavior

Abstract
With its Worn Wear: Better Than New campaign, outdoor manufacturer Patagonia challenges the boundaries between social and commercial marketing and succeeds in its attempt to induce behavioral change among their customers. Despite the apparel industry being highly competitive, the campaign propagates a more conscious use of clothing instead of simply disposing of used items and purchasing new ones. Thus, it provides a telling example of how to use corporate activities in inspiring and implementing solutions to the environmental crisis. Following the company’s mission to build on the principle of social norms, the campaign introduces practical ways for embodying a lifestyle of voluntary simplicity. Thus, it enhances environmental protection, as well as personal well-being. Seeking to inspire, educate, and take action, the campaign includes different elements for inducing behavioral change regarding the repair, recycling, and disposal behavior of Patagonia’s customers. Among other things, the corresponding activities include physical repair centers for clothing and gear, either permanently or temporarily installed. Moreover, on their website, the outdoor manufacturer communicates personal stories of customers who successfully participated in the campaign, and it offers more than 40 freely downloadable repair guides. Finally, the company has established an online shop for used clothing to implement a practical alternative to current practices of mere consumerism. This case study illustrates how social marketing is applied in a commercial context and illustrates how one far-reaching campaign can thereby induce behavioral change among customers and, in doing so, contribute to the greater good and quality of life.
Nina Bürklin

Social Marketing Cases: Health

Frontmatter

Chapter 13. Inculcating the Handwashing Habit Through Social Marketing Among Poor Children in India

Abstract
This case describes a campaign run by the Rotary Club in Chandigarh, India, to introduce the habit of handwashing among poor children living in slum areas in a city in India. Several studies have pointed to the fact that inculcating the simple habit of handwashing among children can reduce disease and improve mortality rates. However, due to various constraints and beliefs, it is difficult to develop long-term habits. Through this project, an effective attempt was made to apply marketing principles to this social cause and to build excitement around the activity to affect long-term behavior change. The authors were part of this project. This case is the result of direct experience in the project together with a theoretical background.
Dinesh Kumar, Punam Gupta

Chapter 14. Social Marketing Campaigns for Healthier Eating Habits in France: VIF and “LES BONNES PORTIONS” (The Right Portions) Campaign Against Childhood Obesity

Abstract
“Les Bonnes Portions” campaign, meaning “the Right Portions,” addresses children’s eating patterns as a whole and is part of the program «Vivons en forme» (meaning: “let’s be fit and healthy!”) or VIF®. This program is driven by FLVS, a non-profit organization which for more than 10 years has proposed preventive health programs targeting French children, following the former EPODE program.
This campaign has a specific focus on the portion sizes theme: which portion for which child, regarding his/her age? And which portions of the different ingredients of a diet? Its main behavioral objectives are:
  • For the school-meal staff: to help them give the right portion in accordance with nutritional recommendation linked to the child’s age.
  • For the children of elementary school: to raise their good practices regarding treats such as candies, sugary drinks, and chips, however adding also emotional and sensory enjoyment experiences, and offering mindful eating apprenticeship.
  • For children and their families: to adopt servings to the child’s needs—especially on meat, fries—and including all kinds of treats.
It consists in forming professional actors (canteen staff and extracurricular staff) at a local level to support changing the behaviors of canteen staff, children, and families regarding food portion sizes and treats. The campaign is still ongoing, but some positive partial results are provided, such as the food waste in school canteens in Saint André-Lez-Lille, one of the first towns to adopt the campaign, which has halved, suggesting that children are receiving servings that are more adapted to their needs.
Patricia Gurviez, Sandrine Raffin

Chapter 15. Smile Train India: A Social Marketer Targeting Cleft Lip/Palate as a Socio-Medical Issue

Abstract
Smile Train India is the Indian arm of the US-based Smile Train that works to provide free cleft surgeries in India. India is one of the major operating countries of this social marketing organization. The key focus of this organization has been to increase awareness about cleft among all stakeholders and help poor families with cleft-afflicted children with funding to undertake surgery for cleft correction.
Sivakumar Alur

Chapter 16. Enhancing Existing Communication Channels for Large-Scale Health Interventions: Making Every Contact Count in the United Kingdom

Abstract
This case investigates a large-scale health intervention (Making Every Contact Count) developed in the City of Salford, UK, and which has since been implemented in many other parts of the country. The intervention encourages Salford residents to make healthier lifestyle choices by training frontline staff, particularly those in the health industry, to have conversations with clients about their health and wellbeing. To ensure these brief conversations are meaningful, a training program called Making Every Contact Count (MECC) has been developed and implemented. The program covered interpersonal and communication skills, basic behavior change theories, issues related to wellbeing, and how to access local services. By using communication channels that already exist, MECC was able to increase the efficiency of health guidance without exhausting limited public sector resources.
Katherine C. Lafreniere, Andy McArthur

Chapter 17. Saving Lives Through Lifebuoy’s “Help a Child Reach 5” Social Marketing Campaign

Abstract
“Saving Lives through Lifebuoy’s ‘Help a Child Reach 5’ Campaign” describes the launch and effect of this campaign. It discusses a social marketing initiative by Hindustan Unilever conceived to fight the grave issue of child. They identified a cost-effective way to deal with the problem through the simple task of hand washing. The company partnered with several global bodies as well as village communities to achieve its goal. The campaign model was structured to benefit Lifebuoy through building an image of a socially conscious brand, as well strengthening its positioning of health soap, while ensuring the healthy lives of millions of people. First, the case focuses on the reasons which prompted the company to launch this initiative and further to create, promote, and manage a brand over time. Second, the case focuses on the barriers and competitions that the company had to face to achieve its objectives. The case further examines the outcome of the campaign and the lessons learnt.
Sonal Kureshi, Sujo Thomas

Chapter 18. Behavior Change and Nutrition Education for Teenagers: Nestlé Social Marketing “Healthy Kids Programme” in India

Abstract
This study tackles a campaign carried out by Nestlé, a famous international company that also rules the national food Industry of India. The Nestlé Healthy Kids Program is a campaign that aims to determine major behavior changes in terms of nutrition and lifestyle by educating teenagers to set a balanced and healthy diet together with an active lifestyle. The campaign seeks to foster good nutritional behaviors in order to meet the major challenges of India regarding malnutrition. The paper emphasizes the strengths of the campaign along with its limitations in terms of branding, communication, and image challenges encountered so far by the company.
Andrei Tiganas, Anamaria Boghean, José Luis Vázquez

Chapter 19. Using Social Marketing to Promote Handwashing with Soap for a Healthier Vietnam

Abstract
Diseases such as diarrhea, hepatitis, helminthic infections, and other infectious diseases resulting from poor personal hygiene remain prevalent worldwide. This chapter reports on Vietnam’s Wash Your Hands with Soap campaign that encouraged young children and their mothers to wash their hands with soap. A number of challenges were identified, including the poor sanitary conditions in local schools, the misperception of the efficacy of water-only handwashing, the consideration of communication as the key tool of intervention, and health officials’ red-tape practices. Yet, there were opportunities such as governmental agencies’ coordination, international donors’ financial support, and Unilever’s substantial resources, and marketing skills. Informed by the exchange theory and social learning theory, free soap was distributed to local households and public areas in targeted regions by the Clean Hands Task Force. The Clean Hands Toolkits were also developed, and the Clean Hands Squad Game offered. The campaign raised the awareness of and engaged with not only the target audience but also the wider public in the promotion of handwashing with soap. Its scope of implementation was expanded from 18 provinces to 50, reaching 26 million people. The proportion of population who reported washing hands with soap rose from 14.6 to 66.5% in targeted areas.
Hoang Minh Doan, Van Dao Truong

Social Marketing Cases: Environment

Frontmatter

Chapter 20. Using Social Marketing to Increase Bicycle Ridership to Major Events in Vancouver, Canada

Better Environmentally Sound Transportation’s Bicycle Valet
Abstract
This case examines the social marketing efforts of Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST) in Vancouver, Canada. BEST encourages bicyclists to ride to major local entertainment events by providing convenient and secure bicycle parking at these events. The goal of BEST is to increase bicycle ridership to major events in order to reduce traffic congestion at events, with the secondary goal of encouraging bicycling more generally. BEST works with event planners to offer secure, professionally attended bicycle corrals at major events where cyclists can store their bikes and their bicycling gear. This can increase bicyclists’ self-efficacy toward cycling to major events. By offering a useful service, making the service free for cyclists, conveniently locating bike corrals, and promoting their service in locations that cyclists frequent such as bike shops, BEST has developed a successful social marketing campaign to reduce event traffic congestion and encourage bicycling.
Katherine C. Lafreniere, Debra Z. Basil

Chapter 21. Akureyri on the Verge: Carbon Neutral and Beyond Through Targeted Social Marketing

Abstract
Akureyri, Iceland, possesses a lot of natural advantages when seeking carbon neutrality. Even so, at a time when many municipalities, regions, or even states and nations are looking at becoming carbon neutral by the middle of the century, at best, Akureyri is already on the verge. And this is not easy. Carbon neutrality is achieved when carbon emissions (usually energy generation) are matched or exceeded by carbon removal (e.g., sequestration, planting trees). Looking more closely at this exemplar city allows us to study a question that will face every sustainability campaign at some point, how does the community go the last mile? What happens after mass campaigns are generally successful? Success will create an environment calling for different approaches, and the experiences of those first crossing this threshold can be instructive for others. More specific to social marketing, what happens when you move from a successful mass market approach to one more targeted at remaining micro-segments or even individual entities needing tailored solutions?
G. Scott Erickson

Chapter 22. Vancouver Aquarium and World Wildlife Foundation’s Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup: Increasing Volunteerism by Targeting Social Networks

Abstract
Shoreline litter is one of the most widespread pollution problems today. Since shorelines represent very sensitive and large geographical areas, any organized cleanup event requires considerable manpower in order to be successful. This case study illustrates how Vancouver Aquarium and World Wildlife Foundation recruited, organized, and retained tens of thousands of volunteers in order to build a shoreline cleanup movement across Canada.
Katherine C. Lafreniere, Michael D. Basil

Chapter 23. A Community-Based Social Marketing Anti-littering Campaign: Be the Street You Want to See

Abstract
The “Be the Street You Want to See” (BTS) is a regional litter abatement program developed by the Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association (BASMAA) in California. The program primarily targeted 14–24-year-old San Francisco Bay Area youth who had been identified as a key polluting demographic. The program, launched in 2012, applied community-based social marketing techniques to a well-defined audience to reduce pollution. BTS focused heavily on social media with the end goal of promoting peer-to-peer interactions regarding littering and raising awareness of its environmental impacts. Whenever possible, the program involved the members of the target audience themselves and invited them to recast environmental messaging in their own words. In this way, the content of the campaign remained fresh and relatable, and the target audience felt the program was talking “with them,” not “at them.”
Mine Üçok Hughes, Will McConnell, Stephen Groner

Chapter 24. The Coulee Clean-Up: A Social Marketing Program for Litter Pickup in Lethbridge, Canada

Abstract
This case from Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, details a social marketing program called The Coulee Clean-Up, initiated by the Helen Schuler Nature Centre (HSNC) to encourage litter clean-up and an anti-littering orientation. The program encourages participation in an event-style litter clean-up whereby participants form groups with colleagues, friends, and/or family to clean an assigned section of the local coulees, which are ravines around the riverbed, and surrounding hillsides during the designated clean-up period. The program offers a fun, social experience to encourage participation. It has a secondary goal of instilling long-term anti-littering behavior change by sensitizing participants to the impact of litter, enhancing anti-littering social norms, and offering social proof against littering. Business employee groups, friend groups, and families are the key target markets for the program. The program provides volunteers with all necessary supplies, a month-long window of opportunity for flexible scheduling, and a fun barbecue at the end of the clean-up period to enhance program attractiveness. The program began in 2008 and has successfully grown over the past 10 years thanks to attention to volunteer needs and long-term corporate partnerships.
Katherine C. Lafreniere, Debra Z. Basil

Chapter 25. Applying Social Marketing to Koala Conservation: The “Leave It” Pilot Program

Abstract
Koala populations are declining, and there are needs to reverse this trend. Using social marketing which aims to change behavior for social or environmental benefit, this case study demonstrates how social marketing was applied to achieve environmental change. A pilot program name “Leave It” was designed and developed with dog owners and experts including koala conservation officers and dog trainers in order to reduce dog and koala interactions. A four-week dog obedience training program was implemented, and a mixed method outcome evaluation was undertaken. Results indicate that five of seven dog behaviors measures were changed from baseline to follow-up, namely sit, stay, come back when called every time, wildlife aversion, and stay quiet on command. Findings of this pilot program provide evidence of the effectiveness and potential of social marketing to change behaviors in an environmental context.
Patricia David, Bo Pang, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

Social Marketing Cases: Education

Frontmatter

Chapter 26. Co-creating a Sea Change Social Marketing Campaign for Ocean Literacy in Europe: A Digital Interactive Tool for Environmental Behavior Change

Abstract
Sea Change was a European campaign (www.​seachangeproject​.​eu) designed to bring about a fundamental transformation, a “Sea Change” in the way European citizens experience their relationship with the sea, by empowering them as “ocean-literate” citizens. With Sea Change using co-creation behavioral change theory principles across a number of campaigns, e.g., citizen science initiatives, youth camps, crab watching, marine litter with policy makers across Europe, and blue schools, this case study concentrates on one of the collaborative and cooperative campaign for a digital interactive tool in the educational sector.
Christine Domegan, Patricia McHugh, Veronica McCauley, Kevin Davison

Chapter 27. Enhancing Health by Means of Massive Open Online Courses

Abstract
The current case study refers to a project that attempted to develop a social marketing plan to enhance engagement in co-creation of a series of massive open online courses (MOOCs). The purpose of the social marketing plan was to encourage several target groups (people with diabetes, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, the elderly, children, and teenagers), in select countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Holland, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and Sweden) to co-create massive open online courses (MOOCs) for public benefit. With the aim of implementing suitable promotional strategies for each target group in every country, a survey was carried out, and so, the structure of the social marketing problem was described as a planning process whose antecedents were three key variables: digital literacy, health literacy, and digital health literacy. The most successful recruitment methods were implemented by the national coordinators, who played a crucial role in promoting engagement in the co-creation activities. In the end, this social marketing plan was useful in helping to promote and improve e-health literacy for the sake of the “European dream.”
Gonzalo Diaz-Meneses

Chapter 28. Use of Social Marketing to Improve Science Teaching in Maharashtra, India: 2014–18

Abstract
This case study narrates a story of an India-based educator, Mr. Hemant Lagvankar, whose team trained teachers of grades nine and ten in the public schools of the western state of Maharashtra to improve their science teaching skills and improve the learning levels of students. The social marketing planning process proposed by Lee and Kotler (2015) was employed to elaborate on the steps taken by Mr. Lagvankar’s team to design and implement the behavior change initiative. Science teachers were trained in the constructivist education approach (Gruender, 1996) through workshops. The emphasis of the training workshops was to teach how to prepare and use science kits as an aid to better deliver the science curriculum.
Sameer Deshpande

Chapter 29. A Case of Co-created Social Marketing Campaign: The Spanish Ana Bella Social School for Women’s Empowerment

Abstract
This case study addresses, from a social marketing perspective, the start-up of the Ana Bella Social School for Women’s Empowerment, a project jointly co-created by Danone (through the Danone Ecosystem Fund), Momentum Task Force, and Ana Bella Foundation, with the objective of empowering female victims of gender violence, through professional training and labor integration as brand ambassadors at Danone’s points of sale. In addition, the benefits of the implementation of the Ana Bella Social School for Women’s Empowerment have been analyzed from a triple point of view, i.e., women involved in the project (micro-level), participating organizations (meso-level), and society (macro-level). Thus, this study shows how the link between social marketing and co-creation of value can lead to the desired social impact, in this case, the improvement of economic, personal, and social–relational conditions of female survivors of gender violence. In this context, we define the marketing strategy (product, price, place, promotion, people, and process) carried out to empower women and assess the results and possible improvements to be made in the future.
Yolanda Díaz-Perdomo, Luis I. Álvarez-González, M. José Sanzo-Pérez
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