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Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) are but two of the more recent examples of computer applications in domains previously dominated by human labour. The use of computers in such areas has increasingly attracted social science research. There are several reasons one could suggest for this, not least of them being the simple fact that public money is being provided for such research. Of course, some of the interest may be due to the wish to prove that technology is being used to inhuman ends, but undoubtedly there is also some degree of fascination involved. Can you really do all the things with computers that people claim you can? There is certainly satisfaction to be had from smugly pointing out its shortcomings, but many of the few sociologists in our own organisation are also among the most avid users of modern technology. Needless to say, they also belong to the most critical users of the technology! A new strain of motivation for social science research which appears to be gaining significance, is the desire to "re-direct" technology, or at least - and probably more realistically - to playa part in shaping future technology . The entire range of motives may be recognised in the collection of papers contained in this volume.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Editor’s Introduction: A Personal History of the European CAD/CAM Social Studies Network

Editor’s Introduction: A Personal History of the European CAD/CAM Social Studies Network

Whenever a researcher starts an empirical project, he or she usually looks first at which previous work has been done on the subject. In the case of technologies like CAD/CAM, this is all the more important since technologies have certain properties which may not be visible at first glance, particularly to researchers from non-technical fields such as the social sciences. Otherwise there might be a tendency to assume that one computer-based technology is much like the other and that any effects one technology may have will also be produced by applying another similarly based technology.

Michael Rader

National Reviews

Frontmatter

CAD/CAM and Social Science in Scandinavia

In this paper I will first give some rough estimates of the diffusion of CAD/CAM technology in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Then I will give an overview over current and completed social science research projects on CAD/CAM in these countries. Finally, some issues of trade union involvement will be discussed.

Håkon Finne

Social Science Research on CAD/CAM in the UK

Social science research on CAD/CAM technologies in the UK cannot readily be disentagled from the more general interest amongst social scientists in the implications of the new microelectronics-based Information Technology ‘revolution’. Since the late 1970s a number of research units and individuals have been exploring the social implications of a range of new technologies. Whilst the focus of this review will be on CAD/CAM it will also be useful, in so far as they inform this work, to point to the more general themes that have emerged in the social analysis of new technologies. Before reviewing social science approaches to CAD/CAM I will briefly outline available evidence of the diffusion of the technologies and the main issues that they have raised.

Ian Mcloughlin

Selected Results from German Language Studies in the Social Sciences on the Effects of CAD-Techniques

When one has worked for several years in a certain area, in an interdisciplinary project with an expanding network of contacts to similar studies, to current projects or to studies at the planning stage, the impression of a mainstream of research will gradually emerge. In the preparation of this contribution which will attempt a content analysis of several German language studies on CAD it became apparent that there are in fact not all that many completed or truly empirical studies. Therefore, we shall first refer to studies whose central theme was not CAD although they dealt with CAD as one aspect of their subject. These studies will not be included in the following analysis. As a rule, they are dealt with in separate publications and several of the researchers whose projects are mentioned attended the workshop so that they were able to present results and details in the discussion. Despite the heterogeneity of approaches, methods selected and cognitive interests, an attempt will be made in the section after the next to point out similarities - or in some cases discrepancies — with regard to certain theses.

Bernd Wingert, Ulrich Riehm, Michael Rader

CAD Applications in Italy — A Review

Aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the actual state of CAD applications in Italy.

Olimpio Brivio, Giancarlo Cainarca, Marco Mutinelli, Claudio Roveda

The Hungarian CAD/CAM Scene

In Hungary (and in some other Eastern countries) the development of CAD/CAM took a completely different path than in Western countries because of the special circumstances (e.g. import restrictions).

George Kovács

Computer Aided Design in Switzerland

In Switzerland, interest in the introduction, application and effects of Computer-AidedDesign Systems has extended beyond the circle of specialists and come to the attention of a broader public. This fact was particularly well illustrated by the interest focused on CAD at recent exhibitions such as ‘Swissdata’ in Basel, and at union meetings like ‘Gewerkschaft Bau and Holz’.

Wolf D. Zinkl

Notes on Other Countries

Australia is a federation of 6 states with roughly 15 Million inhabitants. Compared worldwide, the country is in the middle-range with regard to proportion of gross national product spent on research and development. This is mainly from the public sector with little expenditure from private industry. There is also little expenditure on military R&D compared with countries like the USA or Great Britain. In common with British tradition, there is a sharp division between industry and academia. Most industrial equipment is purchased overseas, particularly in the USA.

Michael Rader, Peter Higgins, Maurits van Wagenberg

The Nature of Design and the Effects of CAD/CAM

Frontmatter

Tacit Knowledge Versus System Knowledge

This paper presents some considerations from the Danish part of the project: “Comprehensive Criteria and Exemplary Prototype of a Human-centred Computer-integrated Manufacturing System”.

Lauge Baungaard Rasmussen, Erik Rask Eriksen, Finn Hansen

Selected Hardware and Software Criteria for a Comfortable CAD System

Product descriptions invariably tell us that the system offered is comfortable. This statement may refer to software, hardware or a combination of both. There is no way of telling what is meant.

Karin Spors

CAD as Mental Labour a Theoretical Approach and Some Practical Consequences

Analyzing the social impact of computer aided design (CAD) requires an idea about what the characteristics of the designer’s work are. Many authors have pointed out that the designer performs mental labour and that this argument should influence the social sciences on CAD (cf. BECHMANN et al. 1979, KÜHN 1980, TESCHNER & HERMANN 1981). That raises the question of what mental labour is.

Martin Resch

CAD/CAE: Analysis of Technological Innovation with Special Attention for the Consequences as to the Quantity and Quality of Labour

This research project forms part of the first STV-research program, commenced at the very end of 1984. The staff comprises an engineer and a social scientist, attended by a project leader, who is also a social scientist *). The final research report may be expected in August 1986.

Annick Clauwaert, Jan Huys, Paul Berckmans

Psychosocial Factors in CAD/CAM Research and Development Activities

Information about a research project

This paper is aimed at providing information about the psychosocial research work in a technical research group in the program for Design and Planning, sponsored by the Swedish Board for Technical Development. The work is carried out at the Unit for Computer Aids in Production at KTH. Identification of psychosocial factors of importance for work-satisfaction and a systematic consideration of human factors as well as analyzing methods for these are the main aims of the project.

Ann Kjellberg

Implementation of CAD and Training

Frontmatter

Prior Knowledge and Learning in Computer Aided Tasks

In this paper I shall present a frame of reference for analyzing qualitative aspects of prior knowledge in learning, with reference in particular to learning to perform old tasks in a computer aided situation. I shall also present some empirical data to illustrate the analysis.

Yvonne Waern

Management Strategies for the Introduction and Control of Interactive Computer Graphics Systems

This paper presents some preliminary observations from a study of the introduction of interactive computer graphics (ICG) systems into the drawing offices of companies in England 1). The subject of this research has been the management strategies developed to introduce and control the operation of ICG systems. This focus arises from a concern that at present most attention is being given to the patterns of adoption and diffusion of this technology and to the ‘impact’ on the workforce. In contrast, little research has been done on the managerial aspects of change, and in particular the questions of strategy and control raised by ICG systems.

Ian McLoughlin

Decision-Making on CAD in Consulting Firms in Denmark

Computer aided design has mainly been used in stationary industry so far. But within the last 3–4 years it has become more popular in the building industry, mainly in consulting firms and not very much in the architect firms (there is a rather sharp division of labour between those two professions in Denmark).

Marianne Fodgaard

New Technology in Vocational Training, Models and Regulations

An important part of the staff in engineering and planning departments are the draftsmen. Primarily these are mechanical/electrical draftsmen, civil engineering/architectural draftsmen, cartographical draftsmen and draftsmen for details. The statistics show that almost 135,000 gainfully employed draftsmen out of the total could be possibly affected by the introduction of CAD. As a handicap for a general solution to the problems, we have to consider that the introduction of CAD-systems into about 50 economic sectors where draftsmen are working is taking place with varying intensity.

Dieter Buschhaus

Conception of CAD/CAM Training for Technical Draughtsmen in a Model Experiment

Following the introduction of the Ministry of Education and Science’s Action Program: New Technologies in Vocational Education as well as the four model experiments with CAD/CAM training for trainee draughtsmen running in conjunction with this program, I would now like to outline the conception of educational and psychological research accompanying one of these model experiments in a large engineering firm, and also indicate initial experiences gained in the course of the training.

Holm Gottschalch

Organizational Effects and CAD/CAM Integration

Frontmatter

Alternatives for the Integration of Cad/Cam

The discussion of models and the available published experience on the use of integrated CAD/CAM systems make it clear that there are different organizational alternatives. If the integration follows the traditional pattern of Tayloristic “Scientific Management”, the option of centralizing the structures of direction and authority as a result of the integration of data material and computer-based information and control systems is used to exclude human labour from the production process or to confine it to very limited residual functions which can not (yet) be substituted by technological means. If such an approach is pursued, CAD/CAM technology means an end to all qualifications and social relations which were previously indispensable to organize and maintain the production process. The new technology is viewed as an instrument to “expropriate” individual and professional knowledge and to absorb the social communication structures, which until now had been indispensable for the organization and maintenance of the production process. Communication and exchange among the workforce are no longer necessary. They even seem to obstruct the work of the individual worker. The control over the work performance is centralized and rests with senior management and there is a tendency for it to become more and more extensive as the frequency of the on-line dialogue, the use of computing times at the individual workplace and thus the time used to accomplish a work task is automatically recorded and can be checked at any time.

Dietrich Hoß

Integrated CAD/CAM-Systems and Organizational Latitudes on the Shop Floor — Initial Findings and Hypotheses

Integrated CAD/CAM-systems are employed to achieve computer-aided integration in all production functions, from design and planning up to manufacturing and the assurance of quality standards. So far, however, overall integration of this kind has hardly been put into practice. This applies particularly to the medium and small batch production of the machine-building industry *). At present various concepts of CAD/CAM integration which complement or overlap each other, often to the extent of operating concurrently in the case of implementation, can be discerned. On the one hand, concepts are concerned with the integration of design functions with planning, controlling and programming functions (CAD/CAP). On the other hand, they are concerned with the integration of manufacturing functions with planning, controlling and programming functions (DNC). Overall computer-aided integration, from design through to manufacturing, has only been conceived for a small number of product elements and limited manufacturing processes so far.

Hartmut Hirsch-Kreinsen

Taylorism and CAD/CAM. Remarks on the Potential Impact of New Technologies in Design and Production Planning and on a Paradigm Switch in Industrial Sociology

If one examines the production of industrial sociology for committed convictions concerning the quality of a paradigm, prime position belongs to the mainstream interpretation of the development of labour in capitalism: the opinion that labour is being ever-increasingly subdivided and de-skilled by Taylorism, the “basic conception of capitalist rationalization”. In the words of Kern and Schumann: “Until now every form of capitalist rationalization was based on a notion that regarded human labour as a barrier for production, to be overcome by a maximum of technical automation of the production process. Residual human labour was regarded as a potential source of disruption to be eliminated and controlled by restrictive job design” (KERN/SCHUMANN 1984, p. 19).

Fred Manske

Organizational Alternatives in the Integration of CAD/CAM

The present paper concerns organizational changes related to the development and interconnection of computer aids for design and manufacturing in the metalworking industries. The topic is particularly interesting because such computer systems now will tie together activities of design and planning departments in ways quite different from what has been established practice. These integrated CAD/CAM systems will tend to create organizational disturbances across boundaries of departments that probably cannot be sorted out by intradepartmental measures alone.

Håkon Finne

CAD/CAM Integration: Flexible Manufacturing Systems in the U.K

The introduction of computers in the U.K. — as in all other countries — has tended to be rather fragmented in the past. There was little of it, it was expensive, it was physically energy and space consuming, there were few people who knew how to run it effectively, and it was devoted to specific functions such as salaries or tool stocks. All these factors are now rapidly changing and the integration of all of aspects of manufacturing is growing from the receipt of orders through design, planning, production, assembly, despatch etc. This can be visualised by reference to a model offered by KAPLINSKY 1).

Bill Haywood, John Bessant

The Organizational Impact of CAD in Italian Firms — Main Problems and Key Factors for Success

The qualitative analysis is based mainly on the findings of two empirical investigations on the process (from decision to actual implementation) followed by a certain number of industrial firms (both large and small-medium sized) for the introduction of a CAD system. Special attention is given to the factors (economical, cultural, organizational, etc.) that create in some way a barrier for the access of small-medium size firms to the technology of CAD.

Olimpio Brivio, GianCarlo Cainarca, Marco Mutinelli, Claudio Roveda

CAD in Petro-Chemical Plant Design. The Development of CAD within Different Organizations and their Consequences for the Organization and Task Structure

When describing the effects of CAD on organizations and task structures, it is important to have an insight into the context (environment) in which organizations operate. This specific context will influence the development and implementation of CAD applications.

Maurits van Wagenberg

The Development of CAD/CAM Systems

Frontmatter

CAD/CAM: Why, When, How? Some Examples in the French Industry

In the sixties and seventies, several major French companies recognized a need to improve the effectiveness and accuracy of their design and drafting methods, to shorten the length of their product design and job preparation cycle.

Jean-Pierre Poitou

Social Effects in the Relationship Between Users and Suppliers of CAD/CAM Systems in Hungary

CAD/CAM developments and investments have effects on almost everybody involved.The international literature deals mostly with the purchaser side, i.e. the impact of CAD/CAM on the organization. The main questions are: What are the benefits?How are the investments justified?What is the role of management and specialists like programmers, users/operators?Problems of job security?Effects on staff morale?

George Kovács

Utilization of Results and Cooperation between the Disciplines

Frontmatter

Utilization of Research Results by the Employees

In the last 10–15 years there has been a general increase in research on the social implications of introducing new technology at the workplace. In the Scandinavian countries, social scientists have had different strategies for utilizing the results of this research.

Niels Møller, Per Langaa Jensen

How do we Feed our Findings Back into the Design Process?

What social scientists find about the effects of CAD systems, they cannot themselves apply to the redesign of such systems. Software and engineering scientists do systems development and hence a cooperation is called for between two widely different disciplines. This is not an easy task as those will know who have attempted cross-disciplinary research with closer scientific relatives than the two in question.

Håkon Finne

For a More Comprehensive View of CAD

Some Reflections, Experience, and Questions from a CAD-Consultant, Aware of the Implications of the Technique

Vendors of CAD-systems describe an almost ideal state: The immediate route from the idea in the designer’s imagination, via the coloured three-dimensional model in the computer and on the screen — delivering, if necessary, the exact drawing as a by-product — to fully-automated production. Fig. 1 shows a snapshot from a CAD-designer’s every-day work.

Wolfgang Jonas

Consequences on the Working Conditions on Site with Increased use of CAD/CAM in Construction

The Danish Parliament has established a technological development program running from 1984 to 1987, designed to support the Danish trades‘ and industries’ change-over to high technological systems, production and product development. The program is divided into several smaller programs, one of which, “ The program for overall technological assessments”, supports the following research project. In construction today, CAD/CAM systems are used in connection with technical calculations, for instance strength, quantity and energy calculations, cost accounts, management and drafting.

Elsebet Frydendal Pedersen
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