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Über dieses Buch

As digitalization and social media are increasingly blurring the boundaries between traditional societal, political, and economic institutions, this book provides a cross-disciplinary examination of value co-creation. From various standpoints, it examines how institutions contribute to service ecosystems and how digitalization is transforming value co-creation in these ecosystems. Further, the book shares new perspectives on relational dynamics among government, companies, and citizens. These insights fill the gaps between service science and political science by integrating institutional logics into the concept of value co-creation.

The book subsequently examines society as an interaction space. Topics discussed include the new logic and transformation mechanisms of economic activities, citizen participation, governance, and policy-making in the face of technological innovations, market-based reforms, and the risk of disconnect between citizens and policy-making. Here the focus is on value co-creation in complex adaptive systems where institutions, individuals, and businesses negotiate value and interests in networked relations.

In closing, the book presents a range of empirical case studies on value co-creation, which provide examples of active networked citizenship, innovative governance and policy-making, democratic leadership, and trust-building dialogue among institutions. The studies address the context of Nordic countries, recognized as world-leading democracies. Pursuing a systems approach, the book articulates a social reality composed of interacting and interconnected elements that cannot be captured with only micro or macro levels of analysis. Service ecosystems are considered as configurations of people and technologies embedded in institutionalized rules, cultural meanings, and practices, offering valuable insights into the service-centered view of markets and society. Given the breadth and depth of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for all students and scholars interested in understanding and envisioning the future democratic landscape.



Governance as an Interaction Space


Chapter 1. The Hidden Side of Co-Creation in a Complex Multi-Stakeholder Environment: When Self-Organization Fails and Emergence Overtakes

Co-creation is typically defined as a mode of collaborative action, which is based on the complex combination of both top-down designing and bottom-up organizing from service beneficiaries. As a practice, co-creation is seen in an affirmative light. It is seen to provide a solution for many service planning, delivery and implementation problems faced by governments and public service organizations. However, in addition to improvement of means of providing public services, co-creation also introduces many challenges. Using the concepts of self-organization and emergence this conceptual chapter explores the hidden side of co-creation, i.e. situations which may produce unforeseen and undesirable consequences. The chapter contributes to both public service research and complexity sciences by introducing a framework which describes how ideal co-creation might turn into participative diversion, pop-up participation or even unintended co-destruction.
Harri Jalonen, Alisa Puustinen, Harri Raisio

Chapter 2. Perspectives on Hybridity

It is too simplistic to see hybridity only as a type of organisation. Hybrids appear in micro, meso, and macro levels of activity consisting of pairwise interactions and network constellations between business firms and public agencies. Cleantech industry, health policy national innovation systems, and global air travel are showcases of hybrid activities in higher than organisational level of analysis. The current classifications of organisations do not acknowledge the existence of hybrids. The denial of existence of hybrids are embedded in the classification principles which have not followed the evolution of economic and social activities. It is also the case that seeing the reality as more simple than it really is provides heuristic tools to understand complex hybrid arrangements.
Jan-Erik Johanson, Jarmo Vakkuri

Chapter 3. Bringing Society Back in: Actors, Networks, and Systems in Public Policy

A key thesis of this contribution is that the analysis of policy processes in the last decades has focused too much on governmental and conventional political actors, on the one hand, and too much on actor-centered bottom-up perspectives. As the microfoundation of social explanations has moved to the fore, actor constellations became the core of policy explanations and contextual factors and systemic perspectives moved into the background. The chapter proposes a renewed perspective on public policy with the aim to bring social factors back into play, particularly at macrostructural level. This means not only that non-governmental, civil society organizations and social relations should be given greater consideration, but even more important are various forms of structural differentiation at the macro level of societies which should be reintegrated into policy explanations.
Volker Schneider

Policy and Evaluation as an Interaction Space


Chapter 4. Mission-Oriented Public Policy and the New Evaluation Culture

In this chapter, our aim is to develop a framework to improve public policy-related evaluation practice for a more adaptive and anticipatory evaluation approach, better in tune with complex interactions and interdependencies that have emerged on our policy agenda today. One of the features of this space for interactions that is public policy is its mission orientation. Such an orientation is accompanied by the evolution of public policy instruments, which in turn necessitate new evaluation approaches. We are convinced that this requires developing a conceptual framework, which can be taken forward to test and further operationalise in situations where similar systemic transformations for policy development are elaborated upon.
Based on our work on public-sector leadership, we are proposing a framework for evaluation in a more mission-driven and systems-based perspective. The framework seeks to take better into consideration the diversity of policy interventions at our disposal, ranging from traditional budgetary or legislative instruments to experimentation and piloting. Changes are identified in the very characteristics of the societal problems we are trying to solve, as well as in the nature of policy, both subsequently requiring a more multifaceted scope of evaluation, an emerging practice being towards a more mission-oriented one as well as a more nuanced approach depending on whether one is interested in the multi-organisational performance, policy service delivery or quality of outputs and impacts from policy initiatives and projects. The focus of evaluation in turn ranges from the accountability to evaluation criteria, timescale, motivation, as well as type of intervention used.
Kaisa Lähteenmäki-Smith, Petri Virtanen

Chapter 5. Systemic Evaluation Approach to Meet the Challenges of Complexity

Traditional linear evaluation approaches are not able to address the dynamic interrelationships and feedback mechanisms involved in the increasingly complex social environment. To meet the challenges of complexity, new evaluation approaches are required. This chapter contributes to this discussion by suggesting a new integrative evaluation approach which combines foresight, multi-criteria evaluation and system dynamic modelling into the evaluation process. The developed methodology is applied in the evaluation of the Finnish Innovation Fund, Sitra.
Mika Nieminen, Kirsi Hyytinen, Vesa Salminen, Sampsa Ruutu

Chapter 6. Participative Policymaking in Complex Welfare System: A Delphi Study

Shared, experience-driven and value-based perspectives in an ongoing interaction of agents constitute the basis of the coevolutionary dynamics of a complex system. The interpretation of good governance comprehends participation as increasingly fundamental in approaching policies in complex systems. This chapter presents a Delphi study of the possibilities and obstacles of participative policymaking (PPM) in municipal welfare services viewed by an expert panel consisting of 37 participants representing the executive managers of third-sector organizations, the chairmen of the municipal councils or welfare service boards and the leading officeholders of municipal welfare offices in Finland. The panel estimated and discussed the projections of participatory welfare policymaking in 2030. The outcomes of the study indicate that regardless of technological preparedness and the structural opportunities offered by a reform, cultural inertia and unawareness generate attitudes inhibitory on PPM practices. Albeit participative practices were considered influential to policymaking legitimacy as well as central to the nature of equal and flexible resource distribution, there were reservations about the inclusion of the participation. There were concerns over the validity and the liability of the decisions reached by participative means. Several undercurrents affecting the development of PPM were discernible in the conversations.
Hanna-Kaisa Pernaa

Innovation as an Interaction Space


Chapter 7. How Overlapping Connections Between Groups Interact with Value Differences in Explaining Creativity?

We build on recent developments in network theory and the sociology of valuation, and we propose that the overlapping connections that groups have with each other (i.e., structural folds) and differences in within-group values are substitutes for explaining creativity (coming up with new ideas and practices). Thus, only groups that lack overlapping connections with other groups stand to benefit from within-group value differences. In order to test this proposition, we developed a scale to measure differences in values in organizational cliques. We constructed 280 cliques of 104 employees at a professional service firm on the basis of their advice relations and tested whether group overlaps and diverging values were positively associated with a group’s creativity and their joint effect. As expected, group overlaps only have a positive effect on creativity when values do not diverge. Furthermore, divergence of values contributes to creativity only when overlapping connections between groups are lacking. These findings are explained by presenting a compensatory theory of the function of overlapping group memberships and differences in values. The findings contribute both to the research on group processes and creativity in network theory as well as the effects of values in social sciences.
Antti Gronow, Anssi Smedlund, Aasa Karimo

Chapter 8. Disaster Management as a Complex System: Building Resilience with New Systemic Tools of Analysis

This chapter introduces an alternative perspective to study disaster preparedness and risk reduction (DP/DRR) systems. Study shows that by applying systems thinking and complexity theory we understand better the dynamics and interconnectedness of the DP/DRR. This applies both to interconnected risks (multirisk landscapes) and interconnected actors (multi-actor networks).
These results are part of the broader study commissioned by the Finnish Red Cross (FRC). The aim of the thematic study was to promote institutional learning on DP/DRR project experiences and practices that can benefit better programming in the future. The overall objective of the study was to identify critical issues in designing, implementing and monitoring and evaluation by the FRC and its partnering National Societies (NS).
This chapter consists of two main parts. The first part presents the results of the meta-analysis of the ten countries and 17 projects. The meta-analysis utilises the IFRC evaluation criteria (relevance, impact, effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability and coherence). From this sample, the final case studies were selected. The last part is the case study section introducing the findings and results of the field missions to the Philippines. Case study analysis uses a set of systems methods and tools to better understand the dynamics and interconnection between the risk factors and stakeholders in the field. These results will be presented in Chap. 8.​3. The systems approach utilised in the case study provides insights about the dynamics and interconnectedness of risk landscapes and inter-organisational Disaster Management (DM) networks. The study shows that by applying systems methods such as network analysis, the risk components helped local disaster risk management units to better understand the interconnectedness of risk elements and the joint impact of those risks. Also, identifying the relations and connections between the disaster risk agencies and stakeholders helps to explain why certain risk preparedness actions produce better results and effects. The study concludes that the more actors are connected to the network, the more versatile the understanding of the risk preparedness and thus the higher the resilience of preparedness actions.
Petri Uusikylä, Paula Tommila, Ida Uusikylä

Chapter 9. Translations in Biobanking: Socio-Material Networks in Health Data Business

This study examines commercialization in the context of biomedical R&D, biobanking and personalized medicine as a manifold and transformative texture of socio-material relations in which an innovation—or even a prospect of innovation—is conjoined with and put to the test by multiple human and non-human actors. The empirical study of a Finnish biobank foregrounds the interplay between social and material elements in innovative business. Our analysis unfolds the commercialization of biobank activities as a series of transformations in relations between social, technical and material biobank actors. The study enriches the theorization of commercialization of innovation by addressing the dynamic and malleable nature of socio-material relations as the groundwork of innovation business and by showing how innovation and business become entangled through translations.
Ilpo Helén, Hanna Lehtimäki

Chapter 10. Digital Platforms and Industry Change

Scholars argue that the platform economy spurs both increased efficiency and innovation for participating actors, often opening new ways for radical change and disruption in different industrial settings. However, despite the large academic and practitioner interest towards digital platforms and multisided markets, we are only beginning to understand the scope and impact of the platform economy in our society. In this chapter, we, therefore, explore how digital platforms shape industry dynamics. Based on a non-systematic review of both recent and eminent literature on digital platforms, we construct a literature-based theoretical model of digital platform-led industry change. Our study increases understanding of how a digital platform-led industry transformation evolves and thus serves as a useful basis for future research on the topic.
Mikko Hänninen, Lauri Paavola

Civic Society as an Interaction Space


Chapter 11. Facilitating Organisational Fluidity with Computational Social Matching

Striving to operate in increasingly dynamic environments, organisations can be seen as fluid and communicative entities where traditional boundaries fade away and collaborations emerge ad hoc. To enhance fluidity, we conceptualise computational social matching as a research area investigating how to digitally support the development of mutually suitable compositions of collaborative ties in organisations. In practice, it refers to the use of data analytics and digital methods to identify features of individuals and the structures of existing social networks and to offer automated recommendations for matching actors. In this chapter, we outline an interdisciplinary theoretical space that provides perspectives on how interaction can be practically enhanced by computational social matching, both on the societal and organisational levels. We derive and describe three strategies for professional social matching: social exploration, network theory-based recommendations, and machine learning-based recommendations.
Jukka Huhtamäki, Thomas Olsson, Salla-Maaria Laaksonen

Chapter 12. Emotions in Customer Experience

The aim of this chapter is to display how emotions build experiences in interactive society. To map out the emotions’ essential role in experiences, the chapter focuses to look over the literature on emotions in customer experience (CX), which is defined as an umbrella term for diverse experiences. The chapter introduces four key insights to underline the integral relation between emotions in CX in interactive society: (1) we identify eight different types and suggest a framework that captures these key types on how emotions build experiences, (2) emotions in CX are essential both in offline and online environments, (3) the diversity of emotions in interactive society is broad from positive and negative ones, and especially the role of the negative emotions should be acknowledged and further explored, and (4) we propose a set of definitions to clarify different terms used around emotions. The framework serves as a tool that guides practitioners and researchers and other professionals to acknowledge different facets of emotions when aiming to co-create experiences and manage them in the interactive society.
Tiina-Kaisa Kuuru, Lauri Litovuo, Leena Aarikka-Stenroos, Nina Helander

Chapter 13. Sensory Technologies for Improving Employee Experience and Strengthening Customer Relationships

Emotions are always present when we talk about human interaction and relationships. In this chapter the focus is on studying the role of emotions in employee–customer interaction through theoretical discussion and two practical case examples. Particular focus is on modern sensory technologies, which can be used especially in measuring emotional states in such situations, where emotions are in other ways hard to express and identify. In this chapter, we argue that in the process of turning negative emotions to positive outcomes, the key is to understand the role that different relationships play in value co-creation. Manager–subordinate and employee–employee relationships have the most impact on well-being inside workplace, but especially for those employees that are involved in customer interface, the customer interaction and relationship has a direct impact on job satisfaction. Naturally this applies also vice versa; job satisfaction has direct impact on the customer experience and satisfaction. Without measurement of emotional states of employees and customers, it can be difficult to determine, which relationships and situations cause most stress and negative emotions in the workplace and within the customer interaction. Thus, emotions are in a key role in understanding and developing relationships.
Jari Jussila, Virpi Sillanpää, Mika Boedeker, Nina Helander

Chapter 14. Individual Conditions for Co-production of a Social Innovation in a Living Lab: Case Sunshine PopUp Park

Participative processes and the empowerment of citizens are seen as central aspects of social innovation, which involves collaborative activities between the private, public and third sectors. It is important to identify the factors influencing citizen involvement, and we therefore investigate how people can be encouraged to contribute to improving societal well-being and to enhance partnerships between citizens, regions and, also, the profit and non-profit sectors. In particular, we investigate the motivation of citizens involved in the co-production of social innovation. We also provide descriptions of specific citizen- and public authority-related outcomes of the co-production process, which are missing from most previous studies (Voorberg et al., Public Management Review, 17(9), 1333–1357, 2015). We also identify actions that might facilitate the co-production of social innovation. In this study, we report a successful case of co-produced social innovation and derive findings from it.
Kaisa Henttonen, Anna-Maija Nisula, Kirsimarja Blomqvist, Anne Horila, Minna Takala

Chapter 15. Security Cafés: A Deliberative Democratic Method to Engage Citizens in Meaningful Two-Way Conversations with Security Authorities and to Gather Data

The Security Café is a deliberation and data collection method developed for security authorities and researchers to access the opinion of the general public on issues of importance to their safety and security. It is based on the ideals of deliberative democracy, and the method derives from Citizens’ Juries and World Cafés. A Security Café typically lasts for 3–5 h and involves receiving information, facilitated small group discussions and the use of idea rating sheets, or pre- and post-deliberation attitudinal surveys. This study examines three projects conducted in Finland and concludes that the method has both intrinsic and extrinsic value: it empowers ordinary citizens and gives them an opportunity to engage in the construction of safer and more secure societies. At the same time, it offers authorities the opportunity to inform the public and most importantly to harvest the opinion of the public. For researchers, the method offers a feasible way to gather extensive reliable qualitative data quickly and effectively.
Alisa Puustinen, Harri Raisio, Vesa Valtonen
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