Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Unlike biophysical systems which follow natural processes, socio-economic systems are man-made. Institutional arrangements and management approaches are typically designed for a purpose and can be modified as circumstances change. In discussing socio-economic systems , not only are the current designs described but also the changing circumstances and innovations in institutional design concepts are considered. Circumstances have changed in Canterbury since the current institutional arrangements were designed in the 1980s.
Recommendations for changes in governance arrangements have been identified through the Canterbury Water Management Strategy and the Land and Water Forum . Furthermore, concepts of democracy have been developed, such as deliberative and monitory democracy , to address the shortcomings of representative democracy. A key change in Canterbury has been the shift from water as a relatively abundant resource to being a scarce resource, i.e. a common pool resource, for which self-governing communities have been demonstrated as the most effective governance arrangements . In other countries shifts from effects-based regulatory approaches to collaborative arrangements are occurring. Involvement of Māori in water governance and management is increasing leading to changes in institutional arrangements .
The shift from central government as the builder of irrigation infrastructure to reliance on the private sector has led a number of issues, such as, the contributions of infrastructure projects to restore ecological health and recreational amenity, and, the co-ordination of infrastructure for integrated water management.
The reliance on regulation to achieve compliance with environmental requirements has not been fully effective. Furthermore, voluntary environmental programmes have led to some improvements but have been inadequate to achieve environmental results. In Canterbury, this has led to the development of a spectrum of regulatory and voluntary approaches as well as the introduction of audited self-management to deliver the achievement of environmental outcomes.
At the individual level regulatory approaches are dependent on the effective exercise of authority. However, behavioural change at the individual level can also be achieved through motivation . Furthermore, the value of water is more than its utilitarian worth. There is a need for individual commitment to a water ethic to respect its significance to natural systems and other human values.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
AgriBusiness Group. (2012). Selwyn Te Waihora nutrient performance and financial analysis. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
BCIwater. (2015). Background – Barrhill Chertsey Irrigation Ltd. www.bciwater.co.nz/background/. Accessed 7 Aug 2015.
Bleischwitz, R. (2007). Corporate governance of sustainability: A co-evolutionary view on resource management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. CrossRef
Booher, D., & Innes, J. (2010). Governance for resilience: CALFED as a complex adaptive network for resource management. Ecology and Society, 15(3).
Brough, B. (2010). Freshwater management. http://www.iwichairs.maori.nz/Kaupapa/Fresh-water/FreshwaterReport.pdf
Burns, M. (2013). Canterbury region dairy report 2012–2013 season. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
Canterbury Water. (2009). Canterbury Water Management Strategy strategic framework. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
DairyNZ. (2013). Farm dairy effluent (FDE): A farmer’s guide to building a new effluent storage pond. Wellington: DairyNZ.
Deans, N., & Hackwell, K. (2008). Dairying and declining water quality: Why has the “dairying and clean streams accord” not delivered cleaner streams? Wellington: Fish & Game and Forest & Bird.
Dornbusch, S. M., & Scott, W. R. (1975). Evaluation and the exercise of authority. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Dryzek, J. (2010). Foundations and Frontiers of deliberative governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Electricity Authority. (2011). Electricity in New Zealand. Wellington: Electricity Authority.
Environment Canterbury. (2010). Compliance monitoring and enforcement guidelines. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
Environment Canterbury & Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu. (2012). Relationship agreement between Ngā Papatipu Rūnanga and Environment Canterbury.
Farley, P. J. (1994). Privatisation of irrigation schemes in New Zealand, Short report series on locally managed irrigation. Columbo: International Irrigation Management Institute.
Fletcher, R., Penny, D., Evans, D., Pottier, C., Barbetti, M., Kummu, M., Lustig, T., & Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap Department of Monuments and Archaeological Team. (2008). The water management network of Angkor, Cambodia. Antiquity, 82, 658–670. CrossRef
Fonterra. (2013). Environmental sustainability on farm: Progress update November 2013. Auckland: Fonterra Co-operative Group.
Fonterra Co-operative Groups, Regional Councils, Ministry for the Environment, & Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry. (2003). Dairying and clean streams accord. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.
Fonterra, Local Government NZ & Ministry for the Environment, Ministry for Primary Industries. (2013). The Dairying and clean streams accord: Snapshot of progress 2011/12.
Glubb, R., & Miller, B. (2006). Te Ngawai water use telemetry project. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
Gunningham, N. (1995). Environment, Self-Regualtion, and the chemical industry: Assessing responsible care. Law & Policy, 17, 57–109. CrossRef
Hajer, M., & Wagenar, H. (Eds.). (2003). Deliberative policy analysis: Understanding governance in the network society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Innes, J., & Booher, E. (2003). Collaborative policymaking: Governance through dialogue. In M. Hajer & H. Wagenaar (Eds.), Deliberative policy analysis: Understanding governance in the network society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
IPENZ. (2013). IPENZ practice note 21: Farm dairy effluent pond design and construction version 2. Wellington: DairyNZ.
Irrigation New Zealand. (2008). Decision support systems for audited self management. Christchurch: Irrigation New Zealand.
Jenkins, B. R. (1996, December 5–6). Best practice environmental regulation – The Western Australian approach. Paper presented at the Environmental Management beyond 2000, Griffith University, Brisbane.
Jenkins, B. R. (2009, February 26). Are regional councils past their use-by date? Paper presented at the Environmental Defence Society conference – Reform in paradise: Threat or opportunity? Auckland.
Jones, R. (2007). Dairying and Clean Streams Accord: Results of tier 2 monitoring within Rhodes Stream/Petries Creek catchment area. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
Keane, J. (2009). The life and death of democracy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Land and Water Forum. (2010). Report of the Land and Water Forum: A fresh start to fresh water. Wellington: The Land and Water Trust.
Lawler, E., & Porter, L. (1967). Antecedent attitudes of effective managerial performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 2, 122–142. CrossRef
Low, M., & Shaw, K. (2012). First nations rights and environmental governance: Lessons from the Great Bear Rainforest. BC Studies, 172(Winter 2011/12), 9–33.
McElrea, F. (2004, July 27). The role of restorative justice in RMA prosecutions. Paper presented at the Salmon Lecture to Resource Management Law Association.
Ministry for the Environment. (2013). Proposed amendments to the National Policy Statement Freshwater 2011: A discussion document. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.
Ministry for the Environment, Canterbury Regional Council & Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu. (2011). Memorandum of understanding in relation to Whakaroa Te Waihora.
New Zealand Government. (2011). National infrastructure plan 2011. Wellington: New Zealand Government.
Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Postel, S. (2008). The missing piece: A water ethic. American Prospect, 19(6), 22–23.
Preston, B. (2011, March 22). The use of restorative justice for environmental crime. Paper presented at the EPA seminar on restorative environmental justice, Melbourne.
Sax, J. (1970). The public trust doctrine in natural resource law: Effective judicial intervention. Michigan Law Review, 68, 475–566. CrossRef
Scott, C. (2005). Regulation in the age of governance: The rise of the post-regulatory state. In J. Jordana & D. Levi-Faur (Eds.), The politics of regulation: Institutions and regulatory reforms for the age of governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Smeaton, D., Cox, T., Kerr, S., & Dynes, R. (2011). Relationships between farm productivity, profitability, N leaching and GHG emissions: A modelling approach. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, 73, 57–62.
Stone, R. (2006). The end of Angkor. Science, 311(5766), 1364–1368. CrossRef
Takacs, D. (2008). The public trust doctrine, environmental human rights, and the future of private property. New York University Environmental Law Journal, 16, 711.
Te Waihora Management Board, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu & Canterbury Regional Council. (2012). Te Waihora Governance Agreement.
von der Porten, S., & de Loe, R. (2010). Water challenges and solutions in First Nations Communities. Waterloo: Water Policy and Governance Group.
von der Porten, S., & de Loe, R. (2013). Collaborative approaches to governance for water and Indigenous peoples: A case study from British Columbia. Geoforum, 50, 149–160. CrossRef
Vorosmarty, C., McIntyre, P., Gessner, M., Dudgeon, D., Prusevich, A., Green, P., Glidden, S., Bunn, S., Sullivan, C., Reidy Liermann, C., & Davies, P. (2010). Global threats to human security and river biodiversity. Nature, 467, 555–561. CrossRef
Waitangi Tribunal. (2011). Ko Aotearoa Tenei: A report into claims concerning New Zealand law and policy affecting Māori culture and identity. Wellington: Legislation Direct.
Wilcock, R., Monaghan, R., Thorrold, B., Meredith, A., Betteridge, K., & Duncan, M. (2007). Land-water interactions in five contrasting dairy catchments: Issues and solutions. Land Use and Water Resources Research, 7, 2.1–2.10.
- Socio-economic Failure Pathways
Bryan R. Jenkins
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 8
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen