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Über dieses Buch

Software Engineering Economics is a relatively new discipline that deals with all segments of the software life cycle. The discipline has received much visibility in recent years because of the size and cost considerations of many software development and maintenance efforts. This book places additional emphasis on the Federal Government`s Information Resource Management initiative and deals with related issues such as Business Re-engineering, Functional Economic Analysis, Organizational Process Modelling and the Economics of Reuse.



Measurement Activity and SEI Process Maturity Levels

This paper suggests that improving an organization’s software project measurement function is both necessary and economically effective in raising that organization’s maturity level.
Measurement and measurement-related activities can provide a foundation on which organizations achieve higher process maturity levels, as defined by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). No software development organization can progress to higher levels of process maturity until its measurement program is institutionalized. Many requirements for higher maturity levels implicitly rely on functioning measurement systems to measure properties of the software products and the software development process, derive metrics from those measurements, and support effective action based on the results (Humphrey and Sweet 1987).
The paper describes highlights of the SEI capability maturity model, demonstrates that effective measurement is essential in successful implementation of a maturity growth program, and that software measurement helps produce higher quality, more useful software products and processes, while improving the level of both process and capability maturity.
Richard Werling

Economical Software Starts With Business Experiencing CASE Tool Projects with Business, Industry and Government

Productivity, quality, and flexibility are critical software engineering issues for the 1990s and beyond. Total Quality Management shows that productivity and quality are directly equivalent to speed. Speed of delivery is first in the top ten systems development issues in the minds of system development executives1. The late 1980s saw the world reconfigured by the fall of communism, the unification of Europe, and the emergence of the Pacific Rim nations as world class manufacturers. Much of this change can be attributed to the nature of global communications. Not only can nations see and hear conditions in other nations via television but whole industries are coordinated via telecommunications. The Boeing 747 aircraft uses parts or assemblies, whose production is coordinated using information networks, from 22 different nations from Europe west to Japan. The world wide political change has increased the complexity of business and government environments to an extent not yet fully realized. The majority of business and government software systems no longer support either efficient execution of international policy or successful competition in world markets. The most successful software in this environment is that which simplifies the human process, what is successful is software that automates complexity.
William J. Hobler

The Challenge Of Managing And Developing A Very Large and Dynamic Management Information System

General Bernard Randolph once said, according to Alton Marsh writing in Government Executive [1], that he retired as Commander of the Air Force Systems Command without ever completing a software project on time. His reference was to embedded systems. But frankly, there is little evidence to suggest that anyone, or a very fortunate few, can say they have completed a software development project of any real size or kind on schedule and within cost In her presentation at the National CASECON in 1989 [2], Lois Zells reported that she found estimates for Management Information Systems (MIS) development are commonly off by 400 to 1000 percent before a detailed analysis is completed In addition, her extensive research showed an average 50 percent error in cost estimates, even after a detailed design is completed. No wonder quality, costs, schedule, usability, meeting user requirements, etc., are of continuing constant concern when developing a MIS.
Palmer W. Smith

The MERMAID Project

The tendency for software development projects to be completed over schedule and over budget has been documented extensively [1,2]. Additionally many projects are completed within budgetary and schedule target only as a result of the customer agreeing to accept reduced functionality.
A J C Cowderoy, J O Jenkins, A Poulymenakou

Software Reuse and Productivity: An Empirical View

Software reuse, by which we mean the reuse of existing software code or design, has gained a great deal of attention because it seems to offer a way to attain substantial increases in software development productivity. Under the reuse paradigm the software developer would select from libraries or repositories of software components and build his program “component-by-component” instead of via the traditional method of writing code “line-by-line.” A component could be an existing standard mathematical or statistical routine, utilities related to operating systems, or even an entire program. Also, there are different levels or degrees of reuse. Some components can be reused verbatim while others must be modified before being incorporated into the new program.
Thomas P. Frazier

A Software Cost Model of Reuse within a Single System

This paper presents a software economics model that can be used to demonstrate the cost effect of the the multiple use (i.e., reuse) of software components within a single software system. The basic idea is that one unit of code may be employed in more than one functional unit of a given software system, thereby reducing the overall development cost from what it would have been if each copy of that unit of code had had to be developed separately in each instance in which it was employed. Other economics effects that may occur, such as enhanced quality and reduced schedule, are not covered here. This model is based on earlier work (Gaffney and Durek 1991; Gaffney 1989; Cruickshank and Gaffney 1991) on the economics of software reuse. The earlier focus was on the economics benefits of reuse over multiple software systems. The new model presents the cost benefits that can result from the multiple use of one software component developed for a given software system within that software system.
Reuse economics models can be used to demonstrate the benefits that can be derived from software. These models aid the financial analyst, manager, or software engineer to better understand reuse in terms of the potential impact of decisions such as how much software to reuse. The paper presents a model that can be used to determine the economics impact of reuse within a single software system or product. An example application of this model is provided that uses data from an actual project.
R. D. Cruickshank, J. E. Gaffney

Forestry as an Alternative Metaphor for Software Development: Applying Multiobjective Impact Analysis

Metaphors draw parallels between dissimilar situations. Metaphors help us understand and “see” one situation in terms of another. For example, the “evening of life” from the metaphor “a life is like a day” suggests a life, mostly completed, moving inexorably to its end. Metaphors sometimes have the power of poetry to change how we feel about and see something familiar.
Gregory K. Shea, Clement L. McGowan

Tools for Managing Repository Objects

The past few years have seen the introduction of repository-based computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools which may finally enable us to develop software which is reliable and affordable. With the new tools come new challenges for management: Repository-based CASE changes software development to such an extent that traditional approaches to estimation, performance, and productivity assessment may no longer suffice — if they ever did. Fortunately, the same tools enable us to carry out better, more cost-effective and more timely measurement and control than was previously possible.
Rajiv D. Banker, Tomas Isakowitz, Robert J. Kauffman, Rachna Kumar, Dani Zweig

Methodological Issues in Functional Economic Analysis

Functional Economic Analysis (FEA) is a methodology for modeling the costs, benefits, and risks associated with alternative investment and management practices. FEA is the primary decision support methodology for Department of Defense (DoD) Business Reengineering (BRE) analyses performed under the Corporate Information Management (CIM) initiative. Since July 1991, functional managers have been required to prepare FEAs to support all investment decisions for automated information systems. This paper draws on several published FEA documents [5,12,35], and presents a discussion of a logical and consistent framework for performing FEAs.
Thomas R. Gulledge, Edgar H. Sibley, Ted K. Yamashita

Using IDEF0 in Functional Economic Analysis

The use of the IDEF (a system definition methodology) has been mandated by the DOD’s Director of Defense Information for documenting the process and data models of an FEA (Functional Economic Analysis) and for all Business Process Improvement Programs. IDEF stands for ICAM definition language. This methodology derives, in its present form, from the Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program, where a standard specification methodology was needed for describing manufacturing processes and data; a family of methods has been developed under the ICAM program. Particularly, IDEF0 and IDEF1x are applicable in the conducting FEA study.
Minder Chen, Edgar H. Sibley

Performance Evaluation Gradient

The Infrastructure Engineering Directorate of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Center for Information Management is responsible for defining an information utility to provide data processing, storage, and value-added services to DOD users. One of the key questions on how to structure the utility is whether to contract for services or provide them within DOD. The primary goal of PEG is to aid in answering this question. Present procurement regulations and practices lead to long procurement and installation delays when compared to commercial practice. The age of the government installed base is far higher than in industry (see references 1&2). These effect the potential cost of government-provided services. Key information utility questions include:
  • What are the key parameters that affect the outsourcing decision?
  • What products or services are more efficiently outsourced?
  • What products or services are more cost effectively provided by the government?
  • How do government procurement delays affect costs?
  • How does the age of installed equipment affect costs?
  • What is the most cost effective equipment turnover rate?
Henry Neimeier

Defense Blood Standard System Functional Economic Analysis: A Case Study

The Defense Blood Standard System (DBSS) Functional Economic Analysis (FEA) was the first FEA to be accepted by the Department of Defense (DoD) Director of Defense Information (DDI), Paul Strassmann. It was one of the first FEAs, also known as business cases, to analyze functional area costs and to apply business process reengineering in structuring alternatives to the current way of doing business. The DBSS FEA examines the business processes and practices of the DoD blood management function and analyzes changes in those practices or supporting information technologies.
Carla von Bernewitz, Marty Zizzi
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