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The term soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) is used to refer to both high-rate domestic wastewater aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems and, more broadly, the process of natural contaminant attenuation that occurs as applied water passes through the vadose zone. As the concept was originally defined, treated wastewater is recharged using infiltration basins and a production well system is designed and operated to recover the recharged water and control its geographic extent in the receiving aquifer. Properly designed SAT system can provide a high-quality renovated water that is directly suitable for most non-potable uses with minimal or no post-treatment. Disinfection may only be required for uses involving public contact. SAT systems are effective in removing pathogens and can also achieve high levels of removal of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, metals, and many trace organic compounds. Key operational and design issues are optimizing the wetting and drying cycling to maximize water quality improvements and loading rates, and managing clogging.
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- Soil-Aquifer Treatment
Robert G. Maliva
- Chapter 19