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A 5-year (2001–2005) joint study of research teams from the Palestinian National Authority, Jordan, Israel and Turkey explored the responses to land management of dryland watersheds in each of the respective countries. The study watersheds differed in their land uses and applied management but were unified by apparent land degradation expressed in water-driven soil erosion due to removal of vegetation cover, and causing on-site loss of land productivity and off-site clogging of water reservoirs.
The study describes and quantifies the rainfall-vegetation-runoff-erosion and the rainfall-soil moisture-soil organic matter-vegetation chain links associated with specific site and management attributes of the study watersheds, spanning from semiarid to arid drylands and from dry woodland to dry rangeland ecosystems. The effectiveness of trees in controlling soil erosion was reaffirmed while discovering that in-spite of their transpiration trees in drylands need not necessarily reduce soil water storage more than the herbaceous vegetation. It was also found that transforming rangelands to planted forest does not necessarily reduce overall plant biodiversity but does change its species composition; that runoff-harvesting practices become less effective as the inherent site’s aridity increases; that traditional runoff-harvesting practices (e.g. terraces) are effective but non-traditional ones (i.e., large-scale furrowing) are both simple and effective too.
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Adeel Z, Safriel U (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Alexandrov Y, Balaban N, Bergman N, Chocron M, Krispil S, Laronne JB, Powell DM, Reid I, Wener-Frank I (2008) Differentiated suspended sediment transport in headwater basins of the Besor catchment, northern Negev. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences. 57: 177–188. Doi:10.1560/IJES.57.3–4.177. CrossRef
Ariza Clara L (2004) Vegetation Monitoring in a Semi-desert Afforestation Project. M.Sc. Thesis, Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
Chocron M (2009) Runoff and Sediment Supply from Small Gullied and Unsullied Basins in a Semi-arid Grazed Environment. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 81 pp.
Cohen S, Svoray T, Laronne JB, Alexandrov Y (2008) FuDEM: a temporally dynamic catchment scale soil erosion model based on fuzzy logic. Journal of Hydrology. 356(1–2): 185–198. DOI:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.04.010 CrossRef
Frank-Wener I (2006) The effect of Afforestation on Runoff and Sediment Yield in a Semiarid Area. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
Powell MD, Reid I, Laronne JB, Frostick LE (1996) Bedload as a component of sediment yield from a semiarid watershed of the northern Negev. Int'l Assoc. Hydrological Sciences, Publ. 236: 389–397.
Safriel U, Abu-Sliman S (2007) Building Bridges of Confidence Through Technical Dialogue. Middle East and North Africa Regional Initiative for Dryland Management. ICARDA-FAO-World Bank.
Schachnowitz Y, PR Berliner, Bar P (2008) Rainfall interception and spatial distribution of throughfall in a pine forest planted in an arid zone. Journal of Hydrology. 349: 168–177 CrossRef
Schachnowitz Y (2006) The Effect of Arid Land Afforestation on Local Water Balances: The Yatir Case. Ph.D. Thesis, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
Schiller G, Cohen Y (1998) Water balance of Pinus halepensis, Mill.afforestation in an arid region. Forest Ecology and management 105:121–128. CrossRef
Sprintsin M, Karnieli A, Berliner P, Rotenberg E, Yakir D, Cohen S (2007) The effect of spatial resolution on the accuracy of leaf area index estimation for a forest planted in the desert transition zone. Remote Sensing of Environment. 109: 419–428 CrossRef
Sprintsin M, Karnieli A, Sprintsin S, Cohen S, Berliner P (2009) Relationships between stand density and canopy structure in a dryland forest as estimated by ground-based measurements and multi-spectral spaceborne images. Journal of Arid Environments. 73: 955–962 CrossRef
Wang Y (2005) Vegetation Monitoring of Contour Trenches in Yatir. M.Sc. Thesis, Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
- Soil Erosion-Desertification and the Middle Eastern Anthroscapes
Uriel N. Safriel
Jonathan B. Laronne
A. Ghaleb Mohammad
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Fallstudie Überschwemmungskarten/© Thaut Images | Fotolia