The present study evaluated the target concentration levels for a number of substances in soils. The study was conducted by the Technical Soil Protection Committee. Reference values were derived from the current concentrations of metals and organics in soils collected from natural areas which in turn were correlated to the clay and organic matter content of the soils. Based on the observed correlations the reference values were defined as the upper boundary of present levels in not-obviously contaminated soils from these natural areas. A comparison of the proposed reference values was made with known no-effect levels and present standards for various uses of soils and groundwater. As a result the reference values can be regarded as a first practical set of target levels for soil quality. The evaluation of remedial technologies showed that most techniques are not able to reduce contaminant concentrations to levels at or below the reference values, implying a strong need for preventive soil quality policies. Due to a continuous input of substances as a result of atmospheric deposition and agricultural practices the geographic areas in which reference values are exceeded will increase with time.
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- Soil Standards for Soil Protection and Remedial Action in the Netherlands
P. J. De Bruijn
F. B. De Walle
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen