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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes recent research and development in the field of nanostructured ceramics and their composites. It presents selected examples of ceramic materials with special electronic, catalytic and optical properties and exceptional mechanical characteristics. A special focus is on sol-gel based and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoceramic materials. The book highlights examples for preparation techniques including scale-up, properties of smart ceramic composites, and applications including e.g. waste water treatment, heavy metal removal, sensors, electronic devices and fuel cells. Recent challenges are addressed and potential solutions are suggested for these. This book hence addresses chemists, materials scientists, and engineers, working with nanoceramic materials and on their applications.



Chapter 1. Nanoceramics: Fundamentals and Advanced Perspectives

Progress in nanotechnology has led to the development of new classes of materials with unprecedented control of structure, composition, defects and resulting properties. Nanostructure ceramic materials have good chemical resistance, good mechanical resistance, corrosion resistance, electrical, optical and/or magnetic properties, good refractory properties, chemical inertness and hardness both at normal and high temperatures. The synthesis of nanostructured ceramic materials by the sol–gel process plays a crucial role in the development of advanced materials with suitable properties for various applications. The synthesis process is based on the controlled hydrolysis and polycondensation of silica and alkoxides, which leads to the formation of nanoscale particles and their arrangement to a nanoporous network after gelation. Depending on ageing and drying conditions, either dense monolithic ceramic composites or nanoporous materials can be fabricated. These materials at nanoscale have attracted a lot of attention from researchers in various fields such as fuel cells, biomedical engineering, corrosion protective coatings, biotechnology, photocatalysis, genetics, etc. This chapter gives an insight into the fabrication of ceramic materials through the sol–gel process and their possible applications in various fields.

Ephraim Vunain, S. B. Mishra, Ajay Kumar Mishra, B. B. Mamba

Chapter 2. Advance Techniques for the Synthesis of Nanostructured Zirconia-Based Ceramics for Thermal Barrier Application

The aim of this chapter is the review of various synthesis methods for the preparation of zirconia-based nanostructure for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) application. To this end, the main materials used in TBCs, including metal oxide (M) stabilized zirconia (M = MgO, CaO, Y2O3, CeO2, Sc2O3), codoped-zirconia, rare earth-doped zirconiate (REZ) and zirconia--alumina nanocomposite, were reviewed and easy scales up route for the synthesis of them were studied.

Reza Shoja Razavi, Mohammad Reza Loghman-Estarki

Chapter 3. Synthesis of Nanostructure Ceramics and Their Composites

Nanostructure ceramics and their composites are attracting growing interest nowadays. With the development of innovative processing methodologies, these materials have reached a long way from the laboratory level to the commercial scale. Several types of ceramics nanocomposite are synthesized these days; still, an insightful analysis of the materials’ properties across length scales is essential for the fruitful utilization of their unique properties. Actually, the knowledge of the effect of nanoscale structures on the bulk properties facilitates the development of high-performance composite ceramics materials. Further, the development of preferred nanostructured characteristics in the sintered composites is a challenging task that requires cautious management in all manufacturing stages. This chapter revises the mainly utilized synthesis methods for the development of the nanocomposite ceramic powders with special emphasis on the key role of the synthesis method in directing the microstructure and properties of the sintered ceramics.

Ankita Dhillon, Dinesh Kumar

Chapter 4. Structure, Stabilities, and Electronic Properties of Smart Ceramic Composites

Since the discovery of graphene sheet, researches on atomic-layered materials have been growing as new and active research fields in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) monolayers have also received much interest due to the superior structural and mechanical properties similar to graphene. This chapter reviews the first-principles density functional study that reveals the strain-induced effects on atomic configurations and electronic properties of h-BN monolayers. The dispersion of the energy bands and the band gaps are examined under biaxial strains, and the band gaps are shown to be controllable by applying strains. The ionization energies and work functions for acceptor and donor states are also examined and they are shown to be tunable. The scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of carbon-doped h-BN monolayer are demonstrated for identifications of carbon impurities and the possibility to observe the carbon defects is exhibited. The relationship between the energy band structures and the applied strains is also shown to discuss the unique behaviors of the band gaps and the ionization energies induced by biaxial strains.

Yoshitaka Fujimoto

Chapter 5. Advancement of Glass-Ceramic Materials for Photonic Applications

Glasses, even if often considered a simple, passive, material, constitute an important piece of the photonic puzzle, where active and passive components have to be integrated in order to realize advanced devices able to play with the light at different scales, from the macro to micro and nano. A material group which is known since more than 60 years but was becoming of real interest in photonics only in the last decade is represented by glass-ceramics, namely materials containing one or more crystalline phases evenly distributed within the glass phase. Here a brief overview is presented of the compositions and properties of several glass-ceramics, especially in thin-film format, which have been produced starting with a sol–gel process and have exhibited characteristics which are significant for several photonic applications.

Alexander Quandt, Maurizio Ferrari, Giancarlo C. Righini

Chapter 6. Ceramic Nanocomposites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as prospective technology for direct conversion of the energy of chemical fuels into electricity. The development of highly efficient SOFC capable to operate in a range of operational temperature with various fuels, however, needs improvements in the microstructural and physical properties of the cell individual parts including electrodes, electrolytes, and current collectors. It is well understood that electrochemical function of the SOFC individual parts strongly depend on microstructural properties including porosity and pore-size distribution, particle size and size distribution, composition and spatial distribution of the constituent phases, and the length of the so-called triple-phase boundaries (TPBs) in the electrodes. Therefore, performing a control over the particle size and shape of the powders (the nanocomposite precursors) used for fabrication of SOFCs as well as controlling the other processing parameters (such as sintering temperature, shrinkage, ceramic to pore-former loading ratio) offer a capability to fabricate both SOFCs with desired electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal performance. Synthesis of nanomaterial has significantly considered as an important and hot field because it offers fast redox reactions, high specific surface areas, and shortened diffusion paths in the solid phase. Reviewing the literature in the past few years shows that optimizing the microstructural properties of SOFC through combination of advanced nanostructured materials in order to improve the electrochemical performance of the cell has still remained as a significant challenge in developing efficient SOFCs. In this chapter we review the articles in the field of synthesis and application of nanocomposite material for SOFCs and present some significant contributions from many research groups who are working in this area. The SOFC nanocomposite material in this chapter is mainly classified into three categories—electrolyte, anode and cathode that are followed by two operational ranges of temperature including high and low temperature.

Hui Hui Lim, Erick Sulistya, May Yuan Wong, Babak Salamatinia, Bahman Amini Horri

Chapter 7. A Review of Nanoceramic Materials for Use in Ceramic Matrix Composites

Nanoceramics are traditionally used in small-scale electronics application, but other more recent uses include larger strength-providing materials like those in aircraft engines and aerospace technology. Ceramics have recently become an ideal candidate for applications that require high temperature, high chemical resistivity, oxidation resistance, and high thermal conductivity; however, these applications are limited by the inherent brittle nature of ceramics. One step in overcoming this issue is through the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), including fiber-reinforced CMCs. These systems are made up of three components, each made of nanoceramic materials. The inner reinforcing fiber, typically fabricated from polymer-derived ceramics, is composed of amorphous to nanocrystalline ceramic, and provides strength and durability for the composite. The fiber is then coated with an interface, typically applied through chemical vapor deposition. This interface allows for strengthening mechanisms in the composite including crack deflection and fiber pullout. The final component of the composite is the matrix, or the bulk material. This nanoceramic material is also produced using chemical vapor deposition and provides the bulk material and strength for the composite. This review gives an overview of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites made with chemical vapor deposited nanoceramics. Despite this non-traditional application of nanoceramics, these materials exhibit incredibly desirable characteristics for use in high temperature and high strength applications like those in the aircraft and engine industries.

Steven L. Suib

Chapter 8. Application of Hydroxyapatite-Based Nanoceramics in Wastewater Treatment: Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization

In recent years, increasing environmental issues, particularly relating to biogenic and chemical pollution of water, have become a significant threat to both human health and the ecosystems. Many of these wastewaters contain a high level of contaminants which are undesirable because they create odor, bad taste, toxic effects aside the unpleasant aesthetic nature of the water. Hence, the removal of these toxic pollutants is necessary and, has attracted considerable efforts particularly via adsorption technology. Hydroxyapatite is among the most representative ceramic materials and considered promising for long-term containment of toxic pollutants due to its eco-friendly nature, good dispersibility, outstanding stability, and abundant modifiable surface functional groups. This chapter highlights the significance of sol–gel synthesis routes for producing hydroxyapatite-based nanoceramic for environmental applications. General summary of other synthesis methods and recent applications of hydroxyapatite-based nanoceramic as adsorbents and catalysts are reviewed. The wastewater parametric conditions and the synthesized hydroxyapatite-based materials covered herein is expected to inspire and stimulate further applications of nanoceramic-based materials in the environmental science.

Akeem Adeyemi Oladipo, Mustafa Gazi

Chapter 9. Sol–Gel Derived Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Ceramic Materials for Heavy Metal Removal

Modification of the silica surface leads to the change in chemical composition of the surface which can be modified either by physical treatment (thermal or hydrothermal) or by chemical treatment. Such modifications significantly affect the adsorption properties of the materials and especially mechanical stability and water insolubility, increasing the efficiency, sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical application. A variety of types of organic polymers can be employed in the synthesis of hybrids with silica. One of them is chitosan. Chitosan and silica as well as their composites have attracted a great attention as effective hybrid biopolymeric sorbents due to high sorption capacity, cost-effectiveness, renewability and high stability. Owing to the presence of amino groups, chitosan is cationic and capable of heavy metal ions bonding. Several studies have reported on the metal ions removal of using chitosan or chitosan adsorbed onto conventional silica. Their short characterization is presented in this chapter. Moreover different ways of silica–chitosan composites are also discussed.

D. Kołodyńska, T. M. Budnyak, Z. Hubicki, V. A. Tertykh

Chapter 10. Hybrid Ceramic Materials for Environmental Applications

Ceramics and ceramic nanocomposites have attracted a lot of interest in the recent past due to their relatively easy and well understood fabrication techniques as well as an array of commercial applications ranging from structural to environmental. Their properties have been tailored to suit the desired applications through nano-structuring of mono-, di-, tri- and even multi-phasic systems. This chapter highlights some of the current state of knowledge on synthesis, processing, mechanical properties and environmental applications of nanoceramics.

Alex T. Kuvarega, Bhardwaj Shivani, Bhekie B. Mamba
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