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Über dieses Buch

1. 1 Historical Background and Relationship to the lEA One of the objectives of the energy research, development and demonstra­ tion program of the International Energy Agency (lEA) is to promote the development and application of new and improved energy technologies which could potentially help cover our energy needs. Early in 1976, a working party for Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) was created with the approval and encouragement of the Committee for Research and Develop­ ment of the International Energy Agency (lEA) [1]. At that time the following countries showed interest in attending the formative meeting: Austria, Belgium, Canada, Great Britain, Greece, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States of America. In its first meetings the SSPS Working Party explored the technological possibilities of the exploitation of solar power at small levels (photovoltaics, wind, waves and thermal power conversion) and also reviewed what was being done at that time in the domain of solar power in each of the participating countries. At a meeting in mid 1976 in Vienna, a study performed by MBB was presented. It stated that as distributed systems (systems using a large number of parabolic trough collectors "DCS", see chapter 4) grow linearly in terms of power, the associated costs grow as a function of the size of the intended system. By comparison, the cost per unit output of the central receiver systems ("CRS" , see section 5.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
One of the objectives of the energy research, development and demonstration program of the International Energy Agency (IEA) is to promote the development and application of new and improved energy technologies which could potentially help cover our energy needs. Early in 1976, a working party for Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) was created with the approval and encouragement of the Committee for Research and Development of the International Energy Agency (IEA) [1]. At that time the following countries showed interest in attending the formative meeting: Austria, Belgium, Canada, Great Britain, Greece, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States of America.
Federico G. Casal

2. Description of the SSPS Site

Abstract
A site near the village of Tabernas (in the Spanish province of Almería) was chosen [III,2.] for the construction of the two power plants. This site is also utilized by Spanish organizations interested in the development of solar technology and has therefore been given the name “Plataforma Solar”. The geographic location of the SSPS plants is 2° 23′W and 37° 06′N and the elevation is 500 m above sea level (Fig. 2).
Federico G. Casal

3. The Central Receiver System

Abstract
As may be seen from the schematic in Fig. 8, the CRS plant consists of a field of 93 heliostats which reflect the sun onto a heat capturing device called a “receiver”. The heliostats track the sun during the day keeping its image reflected onto the receiver aperture. Each heliostat consists of a number of mirrors which are adjusted individually in angle and curvature so as to obtain as small an image of the sun as economically practical. The receiver is mounted on top of a tower in order to make it possible for each heliostat to “see” the receiver at all times. The receiver absorbs the solar radiation and transmits the heat to a suitable working fluid, in this particular case, liquid sodium. The heated sodium is first pumped through a hot storage tank which provides a reserve of thermal energy for limited amount of time and also passes through a heat exchanger which is called the “steam generator”; it produces the steam required to run the power conversion system [I,2.].
Federico G. Casal

4. The Distributed Collector System

Abstract
The energy collection components of the DCS plant are parabolic trough collectors. Sunlight is focused on a blackened absorber pipe in the focal line of the collectors and a high temperature oil which acts as a heat transfer fluid is pumped through it. In order to reduce convection losses, the absorber pipe is surrounded by a transparent tube. As can be seen in Fig. 53, the DCS can be subdivided into three subsystems: the collector fields, the storage system and the power conversion system.
Federico G. Casal

5. General Aspects

Abstract
One of the original goals of the SSPS project was to compare the CRS and the DCS plants. Because of the system limitations encountered during their construction and operation, meaningful comparisons can be made in some selected areas of interests, but only as long as operational parameters, such as availability or differences in design points, are taken into proper consideration.
Federico G. Casal

6. Lessons and Guidelines for the Future

Abstract
The SSPS project has taught an important lesson regarding the selection of appropriate sites. Conventional solar statistics issued by airport authorities and tourist offices can be quite misleading.
Federico G. Casal

Glossaries

Abstract
These glossaries have been prepared as a contribution to the book being prepared by Professor Federico Casai on the International Energy Agency’s Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Project. The Glossary on solar thermal energy conversion has been compiled from a number of sources, including reports prepared by the author1,2 and others3 together with solar thermal documents4,5,6,7 from Sandia National Laboratories and DFVLR.
Federico G. Casal

Backmatter

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